¡30-30! was a political/cultural movement formed at a decisive moment during Mexico’s post-revolutionary period. Made up of visual artists, cultural promoters, and directors and students of the Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre [Open-Air Schools of Painting], the group launched fierce attacks against the conservative educational methods of and teachers and students at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes. In turn, the teachers and students under attack tried to slow the growth of the free education provided by popular painting schools and centers. The treinta-treintista group took its name from the carbine used by Mexican revolutionaries, and its main members included Ramón Alva de la Canal (1892–1985), Martí Casanovas (1894–1978), Fernando Leal (1896–1964), Gabriel Fernández Ledesma (1888–1939), Rosario Cabrera, Fermín Revueltas (1901–1934), and Rafael Vera de Córdova, among others. Its first manifesto was issued on a street poster in July 1928, the same month as the assassination of the president-elect, Álvaro Obregón. The treinta-trentista group had pinned their hopes of continuing their educational and artistic plans on the presidency of Obregón. During the first presidential term of General Obregón (1920–24) and the term of Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–28), the progressive group supported the Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre as an alternative to the art education at the Academy. However, Mexico’s political situation was changing, which led to the new government’s appointment of officials, for example, the post of director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes. Given the atmosphere of uncertainty in this period, teachers, academic students, and conservative groups begin to lob fierce criticisms against the director of the Escuela, Alfredo Ramos Martínez, and the outdoor art education project. The action of the treinta-treintista group against the conservative opposition was voiced in five manifestos, one protest, three issues of a journal, and several painting and print exhibitions.