Born in Arequipa, in his youth, the musician and writer Juan Ballón was an enthusiastic supporter of the avant-garde ideal of renewal. In 1929, he published “Carácter y tendencias de la revolución vanguardista” in Mundial, the prestigious Lima magazine, in which he underscored the links between avant-gardism and revolution. In his article, he suggests that some local artistic movements are in fact an expression of a progressive political outlook. A year later Ballón addressed the same subject under very different circumstances, following the overthrow of the Augusto B. Leguía (1919–30) dictatorship by the revolution led by Lieutenant Commander Luis Sánchez Cerro (1889–1933), who delegated power to a governing junta charged with calling an election. Leguía was a populist, tolerant regime, but his overthrow exacerbated social demands that included university reform, arising mainly from the Universidad de San Marcos (in Lima). Like many other intellectuals, Ballón saw this mood of social unrest and artistic renewal—associated, in his view, with a strictly nationalist agenda—as a prelude to political revolution. It was no coincidence that the election of the conservative candidate, Sánchez Cerro (who was assassinated two years later), coincided with the retreat or disappearance of the few local avant-garde movements. In fact, one of the first military directives of the new government was to close the Universidad de San Marcos (which did not reopen until 1935). [See the following article in the ICAA digital archive: “Acotaciones: la influencia revolucionaria en nuestro arte. Maestros nuevos y nacionalización artística,” by Juan F. Ballón (1151297)].