Year (normalized) before 1950×
  • [El Museo Nacional de Artes Plasticas]
    Gamboa, Fernando
    1947
    This text, attributed to Fernando Gamboa, defines how Mexican Art is to be classified in the coming decades: Pre-Hispanic, colonial, nineteenth-century, popular, and contemporary art. His department’s fundamental goal was to create a Museo Diná [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 732919

  • [El siglo XIX estalla en una granada fantástica...]
    Moro, César, d. 1956
    1939
    In the introduction to this catalog, César Moro (a celebrated Peruvian poet and artist) alludes to the antecedents of Surrealism within the avant-garde movements of the beginning of the twentieth century. He also identifies the contact points that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 752617

  • [En el nuevo arte, la pintura, la música y el poema...]
    Bayley, Edgar
    1946
    In the prologue that he wrote for the catalogue of the 4th Arte Concreto — Invención exhibition, held in October 1946 at the Ateneo Popular, in La Boca district of Buenos Aires, Edgar Bayley states that in the new art, painting, music, and poetry [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 731691

  • [En la Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre de Guadalupe Hidalgo...]
    Revueltas, Fermín
    1926
    This text by Fermín Revueltas, the director of the Escuela al Aire Libre de Guadalupe Hidalgo [Open-Air School of Guadalupe Hidalgo], is very concise. He states that the school he directs teaches art methods so that works can be created to be both [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825937

  • [En la forja de América...]
    Gamio, Manuel, 1883-1960
    1916
    The prologue to Forjando patria: pro nacionalismo, published in 1916 by leading Mexican anthropologist and archaeologist Manuel Gamio, compares the forging of metal out of an amalgam of bronze and steel to the ideal societal intermixing of Mexicans [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125463

  • [En presencia del fenómeno observado en las escuelas libres de pintura...]
    Puig Casauranc, José Manuel, 1888-1939
    1926
    This text presents the Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre [Open-Air Schools of Painting] and its creative production as evidence that Mexican children have a natural artistic disposition. It also associates this disposition with their indigenous blood [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825942

  • [Esta exposición y muchas experiencias...]
    León Castro, Pedro, 1913-
    1949
    This essay by Pedro León Castro appeared in the catalogue for his exhibition of paintings at the Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas in 1949. Following a brief introductory paragraph, in which he explains that the exhibition is a reflection of his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813765

  • [Extracts from 7th Annual Message of James Monroe, 5th President of the United States, Dated December 2, 1823]
    1823
    In this 1823 speech, President James Monroe announces a new agreement that forbids European nations from invading countries in the Western Hemisphere. He begins by recounting that the agreement has been negotiated through the Russian government, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055512

  • [Hay dos categorías de pintores...]
    Eiger, Casimiro, 1909- 1987
    1949
    In this manuscript, Polish critic Casimiro Eiger, who lived in Colombia, discusses the work in the first solo exhibition of painter Marco Ospina, held at Galerías de Arte in 1949. In Eiger’s view, the merit of Ospina’s work lies in its order. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132692

  • [Hoja Popular Ilustrada]
    1938
    The Taller de Gráfica Popular (TGP) [People’s Graphic Workshop] explained its working plan for graphic propaganda in a flyer that specified the following: it could be incorporated into wall newspapers, mailed as if it were postal correspondence, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822757

  • [Ismael Nery nasceu em Belém do Pará]
    Mendes Monteiro, Murilo
    1948
    In his text on the life and work of Ismael Nery, writer Murilo Mendes asserts that, though Nery was mostly known as a painter, his true focus was philosophy. Mendes provides an overview of Nery’s “essentialism”—a philosophical system he [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110383

  • [La aclimatación gratuita a las llamadas escuelas]
    Kosice, Gyula, 1924-
    1944
    In this article, Gyula Kosice speaks out against surrealism and reaffirms his belief in abstract art inspired by the image itself. In the author’s opinion, the latter view guarantees multidimensional harmony with no need for psychic adaptations [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 729940

  • [La casa marcada con el número 000...]
    Castrejón, Eduardo A.
    1906
    This novel by Eduardo A. Castrejón is based on the Baile de los 41 [The Dance of the 41], a notorious raid that took place in Mexico City in which 42 homosexual men were arrested. It tells the tale of a gathering hosted by a couple, Mimi and Ninón, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779575

  • [La Dirección de la Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes...]
    Leudo, Coriolano, 1866-1957
    1930
    The book Artistas colombianos: Epifanio Garay, which was written by Colombian artist Coriolano Leudo Obando at an unknown date, is divided into two parts: a brief introductory essay on the life of academic artist Epifanio Garay Caicedo and twenty-one [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132805

  • [La era artística de la ficción representativa toca a su fin]
    Bayley, Edgar
    1946
    The Inventionist manifesto—published in the catalogue for the first exhibition of the Asociación de Arte Concreto — Invención [Concrete Art and Invention Association] (1946)—discards the illusory image of representative art and extols life, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 731641

  • [La Sociedad de Arte Moderno ha sido fundada con el fin de contribuir al desarrollo de la cultura...]
    Sociedad de arte moderno (México, D. F.)
    1944
    During the presentation of the catalog for the first exhibition by the Sociedad de Arte Moderno it is established that Mexico must become “one of the most important cultural centers of the world, since its great past and vigorous present compel it [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 752636

  • [La teoria de nuestra labor docente puede muy bien fundarse...]
    Díaz de León, Francisco
    1926
    This essay, written by Francisco Díaz de León, director of the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre [Open-Air Schools of Painting] in Tlalpan, explains that the Schools favor an aesthetic education and individual expression over technical education. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 826063

  • [Letter] [1933, Junio?], Buenos Aires [to] Blanca Luz Brum
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    1933
    Other than the intimate details of the communication between Siqueiros and Brum, this letter provides extremely interesting insights into Siqueiros’s public relations in Buenos Aires, as well as his opinions and intentions concerning the local [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1238660

  • [Letter] a Edward Weston
    Gómez Robelo, Ricardo, 1884-1924
    1922
    The letter from Ricardo Gómez Robelo to Edward Weston is an emotional letter thanking Weston for the gift of some photographs, but, above all, he is grateful for Weston’s friendship. Robelo acknowledges that they [the group of friends around [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 806783

  • [Letter] 1913 Noviembre 11, Carlos M. Herrera [to] Martín Lasala, Comisión Directiva del Círculo de Bellas Artes
    Herrera, Carlos María
    1913
    As the director of the Círculo de Bellas Artes School in Montevideo, painter Carlos María Herrera wrote this letter to Martín Lasala, the president of that institution’s board, with a number of proposals, chief among them was the elimination of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1230195

  • [Letter] 1915 Diciembre 1, Terrasa, España [to] José Enrique Rodó
    Torres-García, Joaquín
    1915
    In this letter to the writer José Enrique Rodó, Joaquín Torres García discusses the affinity they share for the Greco-Latin tradition, and expresses his wish to be in touch with contemporary Uruguayan art because, though living in Spain at the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1247404

  • [Letter] 1916 Junio 1, Terrasa, España [to] José Enrique Rodó
    Torres-García, Joaquín
    1916
    This letter from Joaquín Torres García to his Uruguayan compatriot, the renowned writer José Enrique Rodó, suggests that both men agreed on the need to encourage the emerging art in their country by exposing young Uruguayan artists to what was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1247430

  • [Letter] 1916 Marzo 15 [to] José Enrique Rodó
    Torres-García, Joaquín
    1916
    In this letter, Joaquín Torres-García declares his intention to promote contemporary Uruguayan art to European audiences. The objective is to create a program designed to provide scholarships or grants from the Uruguayan government for [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1247461

  • [Letter] 1918 April 29, Paris, Francia [to] E. Restrepo
    Tobón Mejía, Marco, 1876-1933
    1918
    Written in Paris on April 29, 1918, this letter from sculptor Marco Tobón Mejía to his friend Carlos E. Restrepo reveals the nature of the relationship between the Colombian artist and one of the most important representatives of Colombia’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1100365

  • [Letter] 1923 Nov. 15, São Paulo [to] Tarsila
    Andrade, Mário de, 1893-1945
    1923
    In this letter to the painter Tarsila do Amaral, the writer Mário de Andrade urges her, Sérgio Milliet, and Oswald de Andrade—the “country folk” who have become futurists during their stay in Paris—to return to the “virgin jungle,” to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 784204

  • [Letter] 1925 Jul. 16, Rio de Janeiro [to] Joaquim Inojosa
    Bandeira, Manuel, 1886-1968
    1925
    In this letter to fellow Brazilian Joaquim Inojosa (in Recife), the well-known poet Manuel [Carneiro de Sousa] Bandeira [Filho] (1886–1968) provides brief news about the modernist movement (then in full swing) in São Paulo. He emphasizes the “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 784768

  • [Letter] 1925 Junio 17, México [a] Secretario de Educacion Puig Cassauranc
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    1925
    David Alfaro Siqueiros sent a letter to the Minister of Public Education, José Manuel Puig Cassauranc, when he was dismissed from his ministry job as professor of drawing and manual works, for which he was paid three pesos a day. His dismissal was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 786037

  • [Letter] 1926 Apr. 1, São Paulo [to] Oswald de Andrade, Paris
    Cendrars, Blaise, 1887-1961
    1926
    In this letter, written in 1926 to the multifaceted Oswald de Andrade, the Swiss poet Blaise Cendrars makes certain suggestions regarding the forthcoming Paris exhibition of work by Tarsila do Amaral, the leading woman artist in the Brazilian [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 780570

  • [Letter] 1926 enero 28, Calle Lucas Obes, Montevideo [to] Pedro Figari
    Guillot Muñoz, Gervasio, 1897-1956
    1926
    In this letter Guillot Muñoz, the distinguished writer and journalist, tells his friend Pedro Figari about the critiques that his paintings were receiving in Montevideo at that time, and about the unconditional support for Figari there was among a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1238724

  • [Letter] 1927 April 9, Paris [to] madre y hermanas
    Vélez, Eladio, 1897- 1967
    1927
    In 1927, the painter Eladio Vélez, from Antioquia, fulfilled his dream of going to study in Europe. The letters he wrote to his family when he was a student in Europe have been copied and kept. In the one selected here (written on April 9, 1927), to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1131904

  • [Letter] 1927 December 25, São Paulo [to] Prudente de Moraes Neto
    Andrade, Mário de, 1893-1945
    1927
    This is a letter from the critic Mário de Andrade to the writer Prudente de Moraes Neto. Adopting a brotherly tone, de Andrade criticizes the Surrealist nature of Moraes Neto’s article in the modernist magazine VERDE, published in Cataguazes (in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110368

  • [Letter] 1927 Sep. 4, Paris [to] Tarsila [and to] Oswald de Andrade, Brasil
    Villa-Lobos, Heitor
    1927
    The erudite music composer Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote a letter to a couple also staying in Paris, Oswald de Andrade and Tarsila do Amaral. He comments on the difficulties involved in presenting different types of art produced in Brazil as [what is] “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 780595

  • [Letter] 1928 May 20, São Paulo [to] Augusto Meyer
    Andrade, Mário de, 1893-1945
    1928
    This [document] by Mário de Andrade is a reply, dated May 20, 1928, to the letter in which Augusto Meyer discussed the former’s controversial activity, conscience, and references to national subject matter. De Andrade outlines his intellectual [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 784229

  • [Letter] 1928 Noviembre 19, Paris [to] [ Xul Solar]
    Spilimbergo, Lino Eneas, 1896-1964
    1928
    Lino Enea Spilimbergo wrote a letter to Argentinean artist Xul Solar inviting him to participate in the independent annual exhibition initiative, with a mission to disseminate Argentinean modern art to the Buenos Aires audiences. Spilimbergo held [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733833

  • [Letter] 1929 Jun. 21, Rio de Janeiro [to] Joaquim Inojosa
    Gusmão, Clovis de
    1929
    Writer Clóvis Gusmão writes to Joaquim Inojosa about the Movimiento Antropofágico and takes the opportunity to clarify some parts of its agenda. Its principles include: the idea of establishing distance from European civilization by creating new [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 784687

  • [Letter] 1930 Julio 15, Miraflores [to] Antonino Espinosa y Saldaña
    Ibérico, Mariano, 1892-1974
    1930
    This letter by Mariano Ibérico was written at the request of painter Antonino Espinosa Saldaña. More specifically, Ibérico was asked to share his opinion on the polemic surrounding the course on Incan art given at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143618

  • [Letter] 1930 junio 10, Lima, Perú [to] Antonino Espinosa Saldaña
    Velarde, Héctor, 1898-1989
    1930
    In this letter, Héctor Velarde responds to the artist Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, regardin the debate provoked by the establishment of a course on “Inca Art” at the ENBA (Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes). The author considers that humor [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143602

  • [Letter] 1930 Junio 18, México D.F. [to] Ignacio García Tellez, Rector de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma
    Lombardo Toledano, Vicente, 1894-1968
    1930
    In this letter, the interim director of the Escuela Central de Artes Plásticas [Central School of the Visual Arts] informs the rector of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México [UNAM National Autonomous University of Mexico], and attorney-at- [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 795917

  • [Letter] 1930 junio 25, Lima, [to] Antonino Espinosa Saldaña
    Sabogal, José, 1888-1956
    1930
    This is a letter that was sent by José Sabogal in response to his colleague, Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, who requested his opinion on the polemics surrounding the course on “Inca Art” that was being offered at the ENBA (Escuela Nacional de [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143586

  • [Letter] 1933 maio 8, Rio de Janeiro [to] Alfred Kubin, Wenstein am Inn
    Goeldi, Oswaldo
    1933
    In this letter written in 1933 to his Austrian teacher Alfred Kubin, the printmaker and draftsman Oswaldo Goeldi discusses at length the work of Vincent van Gogh and Edvard Munch. He also discusses his professional life in Brazil and mentions the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110856

  • [Letter] 1934 Enero 11, Isla de Trinidad [to] Blanca Luz Brum
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    1934
    In this letter, David Alfaro Siqueiros tells Blanca Luz Brum that the Troubadour—the ship on which he sailed from Buenos Aires in December 1933—had arrived in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Siqueiros talks about the book he wrote on the trip [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1238692

  • [Letter] 1935 December 23, México City [to] Edward Weston
    Richey, Roubaix de l' Abrie
    1921
    In this letter, the painter [and writer] Roubaix de l’Abrie Richey, known by the pseudonym, “Robo,” the husband of the Italian artist and photographer, Tina Modotti, writes to Edward Weston from Mexico City. The writer is visiting Mexico in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 806750

  • [Letter] 1935 December 4th, México D.F [to] League of American Writers
    Cabada, Juan de la
    1935
    Juan de la Cabada reports on progress in organizing a Congreso Continental de Científicos [Scientists’ Continental Congress] in Mexico City under the direction of Víctor Manuel Villaseñor in accordance with the resolutions of the American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801625

  • [Letter] 1935 June 6, México [to] Bernabé Barrios
    Arenal, Luis; Cabada, Juan de la
    1935
    This is a letter addressed to Barnabé Barrios, in New York, signed by Juan de la Cabada and Luis Arenal, as the editor and a member of the Executive Committee, respectively, of Frente a Frente [Face to Face] magazine. The authors inform Bernabé [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801000

  • [Letter] 1935 June 6th, México D.F. [to] New masses
    Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (Mexico City, Mexico)
    1935
    This document proposes an exchange of publications between Frente a Frente and New Masses, but its main goal is to convince the North American publication to use its influence to help connect LEAR to the Association d’Écrivains et Artistes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801041

  • [Letter] 1935 Junio 14, México D.F [to] Angel Flores
    Arenal, Luis
    1935
    This essay discusses LEAR’s decision to establish a “Bureau Editor for Mexico” to publish the continent-oriented magazine, Sin Fronteras / All America—the roots of the future “Congreso Continental de Escritores y Artistas de Toda América [ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801551

  • [Letter] 1935 Marzo 31 [to] Alan Calmer
    Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (Mexico City, Mexico)
    1935
    This letter written by the Comité Ejecutivo of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios [Executive Committee of the League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] was addressed to the American Writers’ Congress (AWC) in New York; it [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 807356

  • [Letter] 1935 Noviembre 8, Mexico City [to] Luis Arenal
    Ossa, Ben
    1935
    After discussing how busy Germán List Arzubide—the Estridentista from old times—kept in New York’s workers’ media, Ben Ossa mentions the ideas suggested to LEAR by the “Congreso de Artistas Americanos (de Estados Unidos)” [American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801606

  • [Letter] 1935 Octubre 16, New York [to] Luis Arenal
    1935
    “The Red International”—as Ramón Pi, Jr. referred to himself—describes his vehicle for distributing revolutionary words and images from his base in New York. His goal is to place his publication in the hands of professionals whose names he [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801576

  • [Letter] 1936 December [to] Pollock, Sandy, Lehman
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    1936
    In this brief letter, David Alfaro Siqueiros advises Jackson Pollock and his team that the studio in New York will be closed during the day while he prepares for his forthcoming exhibition in Manhattan. Siqueiros explains that he needs to be alone to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 751122