Topic Descriptor: biennials (exhibitions)×
  • ¡Que hable el diablo!: ¿La Bienal es falsa?... ¿es derroche de dinero?... ¿agente del ninguneo?
    Castillo, Fausto
    1958
    Fausto Castillo interviewed Mr. Miguel Salas Anzures who—when asked about the accusation that he was spending a great deal of money on the first Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado [Inter-American Biennial of Painting and Printmaking], [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758326

  • ¡Tamayo es un hipócrita! : dice Siqueiros en una entrevista exclusiva para Hoy sobre la Bienal
    Mendoza, María Luisa
    1958
    In this interview, David Alfaro Siqueiros expressed his views on the Biennial. He began by critiquing the paintings exhibited by the United States, and warned Latin American painters against imitating hybrid ideas that made no sense, such as Tachisme [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 768083

  • ¿Autenticidad o exotismo?
    Abril de Vivero, Francisco
    1977
    The author of this article, Francisco Abril de Vivero, claims that the decision to send arts and crafts instead of “fine arts” to represent Peru at the 1977 Bienal de São Paulo was an act of “infra-Marxist populism.” In his opinion it was a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855918

  • "Evaluar" o "calificar" en el contexto actual de la cultura venezolana
    Hernández, Abdel
    1994
    Abdel Hernández, the Cuban critic and writer, discusses the VII Bienal Nacional de Dibujo de Caracas (Museo de Artes Visuales Alejandro Otero, 1994) which, in his opinion, was an event that promoted “fragmentation and disciplinarity” in art, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1167669

  • "Un mes de desahogos pasionales" : llama B. Salcedo su exposición
    1968
    By way of a brief interview, this text announces the opening of Bernardo Salcedo’s exhibition, Un mes de desahogos pasionales, at UD gallery in Parque de la Independencia in Bogotá. It explains that once the show is over, the works in it will [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864509

  • [Al retomar las posibilidades...]
    Auerbach, Ruth
    1991
    In this text, Ruth Auerbach explains the curatorial guidelines behind the 3rd Bienal Nacional de Arte de Guayana (Ciudad Bolívar, 1993). She believes the salons were established in order to propose that they be a space open to experimentation. In [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162215

  • [Esta bienal que por tercera vez inaguramos es la realización colombiana...]
    1973
    In this prologue to the catalogue of the 3rd Coltejer Art Biennial, held in Medellín in 1972, the president of the sponsoring company, Rodrigo Uribe Echavarría, explained what he considered to be the double significance of the Biennial, the most [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1098143

  • [Letter] 1968 Dec. 30 [to] Walter Zanini
    Gerchman, Rubens, 1942-2008
    1968
    While in the United States on a travel scholarship, the artist Rubens Gerchman wrote to Walter Zanini—who at the time was the director of the MAC-USP (Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo)—to tell him that he was in New York [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111051

  • [Letter] 1969, São Paulo, Brazil [to] Rubens Gerchman
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-
    1969
    The synopsis in English are coming soon [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111055

  • [Letter] 1970 May 15, México D.F [to] Lorenzo Homar
    Beltrán, Alberto
    1970
    In this letter, Mexican artist Albero Beltrán (1923–2002) informs Puerto Rican artist Lorenzo Homar that the course in poster design that Polish designer Wiktor Gorka was offering at the Academia de San Carlos (Mexico City) would continue until [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825593

  • [Letter] 1971 December 15, San Juan, Puerto Rico [to] Lorenzo Homar
    Conde, Carlos
    1971
    Carlos Conde III, who at the time in question was president of the board of directors of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña [ICP, Puerto Rican Cultural Institute], answers several questions asked by the Puerto Rican artist Lorenzo Homar about [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825694

  • [Letter] 1973 December 17, s.l. [to] Lorenzo Homar
    Alegría, Ricardo E.
    1973
    In 1974, Ricardo Alegría was director of the Office of Cultural Affairs, as well as a member of the committee for the III Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [Third San Juan Biennial of Latin American Graphic Art]. [In this letter,] Alegr [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 861290

  • [Letter] 1973 Diciembre 10, San Juan de Puerto Rico [to] Ricardo Alegría, Director del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña
    Homar, Lorenzo
    1973
    Puerto Rican printmaker Lorenzo Homar informs Ricardo Alegría, director of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña (ICP), of his reasons for not being interested in participating in the selection committee for the Bienal de San Juan de Grabado [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 823984

  • [Letter] 1974 Enero 20, Miramar, Puerto Rico [to] the editor The San Juan Star
    Homar, Lorenzo
    1974
    In response to an article that appeared in the art section of The San Juan Star newspaper, Lorenzo Homar explains that there will not be a “counter Biennial” at the Tercera Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [Third San Juan Biennial [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 863670

  • [Letter] 1976 April 20, San Juan, Puerto Rico [to] Luis Manuel Rodríguez Morales, Director Ejecutivo del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña
    Alcántara, Pedro, 1942-; Jaramillo, María de la Paz, 1948-; Zalamea, Gustavo, 1951-; Rendón, Augusto, 1933-; León, Phanor
    1976
    In this letter to Luis Manuel Rodríguez Morales, executive director of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña (ICP), Colombian artists María de la Paz Jaramillo, Pedro Alcántara, Phanor León, Gustavo Zalamea, and Augusto Rendón condition their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825533

  • [Letter] 1976 May 10, San Juan, Puerto Rico [to] Director de El Nuevo Día
    Homar, Lorenzo
    1976
    Lorenzo Homar states that Puerto Rican artists were never informed that the IV Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [IV Latin American Print Biennial, San Juan] would be financed with funds from the American Revolution Bicentennial [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 861769

  • [Letter] 1977 Enero 11, Miramar, Puerto Rico [to] Ricardo Alegría
    Homar, Lorenzo
    1977
    Lorenzo Homar writes to Ricardo Alegría, the director of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña [Puerto Rican Cultural Institute] (ICP), to thank him for suggesting to Zoran Krisnik that he (Homar) should take part in the Ljubljana Biennial [which [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 863881

  • [Letter] 1981, Julio 21, São Paulo, Brasil [to] Clemente Padín
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-
    1981
    This is the Brazilian art critic and curator Walter Zanini’s official invitation to Clemente Padín, asking him to take part in the XVI Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, in 1981. The document created a “diplomatic” incident that was solved [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1242138

  • [Letter] 1989 Febrero 14, The University of Iowa [to] Lorenzo Homar
    Lasansky, Mauricio, 1914-
    1989
    In this letter to Puerto Rican artist Lorenzo Homar, Argentine artist Mauricio Lasansky states that he resents the fact that the Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano y del Caribe [Latin American and Caribbean Print Biennial, San Juan] is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864217

  • [Letter] 1996 Mayo 15, San Juan, Puerto Rico [to] Lorenzo Homar y contestaciones de Lorenzo Homar
    Díaz Hernández, Luis Edgardo; Homar, Lorenzo
    1996
    Luis E. Díaz Hernández, executive director of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña [Puerto Rican Cultural Institute] (ICP), sent a letter to the artist Lorenzo Homar with a questionnaire consisting of five questions. The objective of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 856255

  • [Même dans le moment les plus durs, la France des travailleurs...]
    1969
    The text states that—although France had always been a symbol of freedom—the French government, along with its curators and some artists, was willing to send a submission to the São Paulo Biennial despite the dramatic situation that Brazil was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774679

  • [Par ordre émanent du Département Culturel du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères Brésilien...]
    1969
    This text provides information regarding the measures imposed upon Brazilian culture after the state coup of 1964. It particularly refers to the actions derived from the Institutional Act No. 5, dated December 13, 1968. Once the Parliament was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774640

  • [Si, como ya se dijera,"el campo del arte es el de las realidades...]
    1971
    This is the introduction to the catalogue for the Primera Bienal Americana de Artes Gráficas [First American Biennial of Graphic Arts], held in 1971. The sponsors of the project suggest that one of “the ultimate realities” in the field of art is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1075853

  • [Tal vez resulte un lugar común afirmar que...]
    Carreño, Freddy
    1988
    In this essay on the fourth Bienal Nacional de Escultura Francisco Narváez (Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Francisco Narváez, 1988), the critic Freddy Carreño introduces the reader to the history of sculpture from its beginnings. The writer points [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162982

  • [Tengo el honor de dirigirme a Ud. en relación a la nota no. Br. 568/22/1...]
    Sosa, Jesualdo, 1905-1982
    1961
    This document is a confidential report, perhaps to be sent to the KGB, on the three Uruguayan artists selected to participate in the 1961 São Paulo Biennial. The text addresses other aspects of the art scene in Uruguay as well, among them the group [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1238805

  • A bienal de 85 e seu grande tema
    Gomes, Alair, 1921-1992
    1986
    In this article, the photographer and critic Alair Gomes writes about the controversial eighteenth Bienal de São Paulo (1985), commonly known as the “Grande Tela” [Large Canvas]. According to Gomes, the underlying idea of the biennial is “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110932

  • A Bienal de cá para lá
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-; Bonomi, Maria; Pessanha, José Américo; Monteiro, Paulo, 1961-; Salvador, Gilberto, 1946-; Boni, Regina; Strina, Luisa
    1991
    This document consists of a series of statements on the XXI São Paulo Biennial. Professor Walter Zanini, curator of the sixteenth and seventeenth biennials, held in 1981 and 1983 respectively, condemns a modality whereby artists are selected to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111345

  • A Bienal de Salvador
    Spanudis, Theon
    1967
    This text was written by the Greek critic Theon Spanudis about the first Bienal Nacional de Artes Plásticas, held in 1966, in the city of Salvador (state of Bahia). The critic objects to the presence of artwork linked to Pop art and the New [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110843

  • A bienal desmontada
    Lagnado, Lisette, 1961-
    1990
    In this article the journalist Lisette Lagnado discusses the layout of the XX Bienal Internacional de São Paulo in terms of the artwork/space ratio and arrangement vis-à-vis the interaction among artists, curators, architects, and even the public. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111321

  • A porta da cultura
    Klintowitz, Jacob, 1941-
    1969
    In this article, art critic Jacob Klintowitz discusses the international boycott of the São Paulo Biennial in the late sixties. He suggests that the Associação Brasileira dos Críticos de Arte and the AIAP—the two Brazilian institutions that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110906

  • A representação brasileira na IX Bienal de São Paulo
    Schenberg, Mário
    1967
    Mário Schenberg praised the organization of the Ninth São Paulo Biennial [1967] for understanding “this moment of extraordinary activity and profound renewal in Brazilian art.” His praise was based on the priority given to innovative works, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111146

  • A verdade mente
    Pedrosa, Adriano
    1999
    Adriano Pedrosa wrote this text on Iran do Espírito Santo’s work for the 1999 edition of the Biennale di Venezia. Pedrosa asserts that any perception of “the real” depends on the language used to express it. That is evident in do Espírito [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111269

  • Adrián Pujol y la fidelidad a la imagen
    Jiménez, Maritza, 1956-
    1981
    The journalist Maritza Jiménez interviews the Venezuelan printmaker and illustrator Adrián Pujol on the occasion of the latter’s exhibition at the Sala Ipostel (Caracas, 1981). During the conversation, they discuss Pujol’s conceptual and formal [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1157433

  • Advertencia a la crítica
    Goeritz, Mathias, 1915-1990
    1960
    In view of the results of the Segunda Bienal Interamericana de México [Second Inter- American Biennial of Mexico]that took place in the Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mathias Goeritz’s opinion is that if what is being exhibited has something to do with [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 741803

  • Al sur del paralelo 8 : Arte y confrontación : Argumentos para un debate.
    Carreño, Freddy
    2003
    The critic and curator Freddy Carreño seeks to present the structural underpinnings of the V Bienal de Guayana (Ciudad Bolívar, 1997), whose central theme focused on the Venezuelan region of Guayana, a vast region endowed with significant [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162247

  • Algo se pudre en el INC...
    Román, Élida
    1977
    This is a letter written by art critic Élida Román, who at the time was the director of the Museo de Arte Italiano,an art gallery dependent on the Instituto Nacional de Cultura, addressed to the leadership of said institution. The letter advises [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855811

  • Antíarte artística
    Pignatari, Décio
    1967
    The controversial author Décio Pignatari visited the IX International Biennial of São Paulo in 1967, which inspired him to write a brief overview on the subject of “anti-art.” In one of his brazen statements he claims that “the Biennale is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111106

  • Antonio Rodríguez Luna : como jurado y como pintor no podía estar con su arte deshumanizado y servil
    Rodríguez Luna, Antonio
    1958
    Antonio Rodríguez Luna was invited to sit on the jury of the I Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado [First Inter-American Biennial of Paintings and Prints] a few days after the exhibition opened. He was picked as the arbiter who would cast the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758430

  • Apêndice : I Bienal Latino-Americana de São Paulo
    Morais, Frederico, 1936-
    1979
    This is a scathing critique of the 1st Latin American Biennial held in São Paulo in November and December 1978, which featured exhibitions and symposia on “myth and magic.” Frederico Morais reports, “All the negative predictions concerning [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 777145

  • Apresentação
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    1951
    This text was the introduction to the Iª Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, written by the art director for the exhibition, Lourival Gomes Machado. The text explains the form in which this exhibition was proposed by the organizers, who [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110834

  • Apuntes para una Bienal
    Auerbach, Ruth
    1994
    In this essay, Ruth Auerbach—the art critic and curator of the IV Bienal de Arte de Guayana (Ciudad Bolívar, 1994)—reflects on the challenge of positioning the biennial as a space devoted to the promotion of emerging Venezuelan art. Auerbach [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162199

  • Apuntes sobre la Segunda Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano
    Ruiz de la Mata, Ernesto
    Puerto Rican critic Ernesto Ruiz de la Mata comments that after the II Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [2nd San Juan Biennial of Latin American Graphic Art] was inaugurated, many people forgot about the marginal activities that made [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 806339

  • Argentina
    1954
    The document is in reference to the presentation of the Argentinean delegation organized by the Subsecretaría de Difusión del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República Argentina [Undersecretary for Dissemination of the Ministry of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 743249

  • Arte contemporânea brasileira
    Pedrosa, Adriano
    1998
    Adriano Pedrosa, curator of the segment “Arte Contemporânea Brasileira” in the 24th International Biennial of São Paulo (1998), states that the name of the exhibition he is curating raises the following question: “What art is (not) [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111154

  • Arte em órbita
    Rosenberg, Harold
    1967
    In 1961, the magazine ARTnews sent critic Harold Rosenberg to São Paulo to cover the opening of the VI São Paulo Biennial, which had been postponed due to the sudden resignation of Brazilian President Jânio Quadros a few months earlier. In this [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111186

  • Arte popular do Peru : 14a. Bienal Internacional de Sao Paulo '77
    1977
    This is a poster for the Peruvian Folk Art exhibition at the XIV Bienal Internacional de São Paulo in 1977. The design includes only the title of the exhibition and an enlarged detail photograph of a Pucará Bull [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 857172

  • Arte popular peruano en Sao Paulo
    La Torre, Alfonso
    1977
    Alfonso La Torre interviews the photographer Eva Lewitus, who shares her opinions on the Peruvian folk art exhibition that was presented at the XIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1977. She thinks the exhibit did not reflect the full scope of this kind of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855899

  • At 21, has the Graphics Biennial really come of age?
    Ruiz de la Mata, Ernesto
    1991
    In 1991, the IX Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano y del Caribe [9th San Juan Biennial of Latin and Caribbean American Graphic Art] was held in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican critic Ernesto Ruiz de la Mata took advantage of the occasion to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 852762

  • Bienal
    Horta, Arnaldo Pedroso d', 1914-1973
    1969
    In this article, the journalist Arnaldo Pedroso d’Horta describes the boycott against the tenth Bienal de São Paulo (1969), sparked by the Brazilian military regime’s rejection of one of the curators in the French delegation, followed by the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111041

  • Bienal : renovação crítica e riscos
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-
    1989
    Walter Zanini, curator of the 1981 and 1983 São Paulo Biennials, defends the critical role that curators play in mega-exhibitions like the São Paulo Biennial. He asserts that that role exceeds formulating the concepts that serve as the structure of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111346