Topic Descriptor: expatriates×
  • Individualismo y nacionalidad
    Rojas, Ricardo, 1882-1957
    In “Individualismo y nacionalidad,” Argentine journalist and writer Ricardo Rojas deconstructs the terms “race” and “nationality.” Rojas argues that a person can adopt a new race or nationality, replacing that of their native country. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125479

  • HIRSCH : fugitivo do Brasil, malgré soi
    Bardi, P. M. (Pietro Maria), 1900-1999
    Pietro Maria Bardi discusses the alarming number of Brazilians leaving the country, specifically mentioning Eugênio Hirsch, who had worked as a graphic artist in Rio de Janeiro, and was in Madrid working as the art director of a collection of books [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111195

  • O artista que vai e o que fica na América Latina
    This article discusses a text by Argentine painter Luis Felipe Noé in which he asserts that the responsibility of Latin American artists begins when they leave the region to become part of the international art scene. While Noé [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111181

  • [Numa nota da seção Pintura & Escultura...]
    This anonymous article discusses the exodus of Latin American artists departing for North America and Europe. It also addresses the lack of professionalism within the local art scene especially with regard to public support for art. Mention is made [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111180

  • Dos modernistas aos cinéticos : da ferocidade criativa de Matta ao espaço Latino Americano
    Amaral, Aracy A., 1930-
    This text by the art critic Aracy Amaral (b. 1930) describes an exhibition of work by Latin American artists living in Paris, which she curated at the Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo (MAC-USP) in 1985. The objective of this [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111163

  • [Letter] 1969, São Paulo, Brazil [to] Rubens Gerchman
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-
    The synopsis in English are coming soon [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111055

  • Fala, Hélio
    Pape, Lygia; Oiticica, Hélio, 1937-1980
    Lygia Pape interviews Hélio Oiticica after he had returned from having lived for a period in New York. When asked about the term “Latin American art,” Oiticica says that he does not believe his work fits into that category, which he considers [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111054

  • Conversação de Holly Block com Anna Maria Maiolino
    Block, Holly; Maiolino, Anna Maria
    The main topic of this interview is the graphic work of Brazilian artist Anna Maria Maiolino exhibited in 2002 at the Drawing Center and Art in General in New York. During the conversation, Maiolino clarifies that in the seventies her art became [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111053

  • Uma arte brasileiro/latino-americana
    Gerchman, Rubens, 1942-2008
    While living in New York, Rubens Gerchman announced that he would no longer paint, and began producing objects instead. Nonetheless drawing continued to be his starting point. Throughout his text, he offers observations on the arts scene of the city [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111052

  • [Letter] 1968 Dec. 30 [to] Walter Zanini
    Gerchman, Rubens, 1942-2008
    While in the United States on a travel scholarship, the artist Rubens Gerchman wrote to Walter Zanini—who at the time was the director of the MAC-USP (Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo)—to tell him that he was in New York [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111051

  • Campos de batalha : tornar visível o invisível - mudar nossa maneira de viver
    Flusser, Vilém, 1920-1991
    While traveling in New York, philosopher Vilém Flusser, who had lived in Brazil for two decades, visited the studio of Brazilian artist Antonio Henrique Amaral to see his Campos de Batalha series, which consisted of the works on canvas on the banana [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111050

  • O futuro é construtivo
    Castro, Amílcar de
    In the early 1970s, when Amílcar de Castro was in New York for the group shows where he was exhibiting, he was surprised by the number of galleries in the city. His enthusiasm is reflected in his assessment of the commercial success of art that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111049

  • Teseu e o Minotauro
    Cláudio, José, 1932-
    In Olinda (Pernambuco state), painter José Claudio uses an exceedingly colloquial tone to discuss the significance of artist Sérvulo Esmeraldo’s “return” to his native city (Crato, in the state of Ceará) after having resided in Europe for [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110765

  • Arte y desplazamiento = Art and displacement
    This essay, written by the art curator María Clara Bernal and published in the catalogue for the exhibition Displaced (2007), explains why it is important to address the subject of displacement as an essential feature of the contemporary world of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1098481

  • Presentación
    Mosquera, Gerardo
    In this text, Gerardo Mosquera introduces the exhibition Ante América [Facing the Americas] with an essay describing the common social, political and economic framework that has fostered the art of what he calls “el Sur” or “Nuestra América [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065586

  • [Artist's Statement for Proposed Exhibition, 'In Search of an Island', April 1991]
    Suaréz, Bibiana, 1960-
    In this artist statement for the exhibition In Search of an Island (1991), Bibiana Suarez discusses how her work reflects her search for self-identification and the problems of living between two cultures—that of Puerto Rico and the United States [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1064446

  • El exilio artístico español en Puerto Rico (1938-1960)
    González Lamela, María del Pilar
    In the third chapter of El exilio artístico español en el Caribe: Cuba, Santo Domingo y Puerto Rico 1936–1960 [Spanish Artists in Exile in the Caribbean: Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico, 1936–1960], the Puerto Rican art historian María [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 866784

  • [Letter] Comunicación de la Comisión de Planificación y Organización de las jornadas de la cultura uruguaya en el exilio. México, 9 de septiembre de 1977.
    Artigas Basté, Josep
    In this letter written by the Planning and Organization Commission of the Symposia on Uruguayan Culture in Exile, José Artigas expresses gratitude for the contribution to and solidarity with Uruguayan culture in exile, and for the defense of that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 863500

  • [Ayer al fin de la tarde..]
    Toral, Mario
    Chilean artist Mario Toral speaks of his experiences when he arrived in New York as an exile in 1973, immediately after the coup d'état led by General Augusto Pinochet. He compares the squandering of North Americans, who throw everything away, with [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 861808

  • Sobre el exilio exterior y el exilio interior
    Torres Martinó, José Antonio, 1916-2011
    With a nod to the ideas of the Mexican writer, Octavio Paz, Puerto Rican artist José Antonio Torres Martinó observes that some writers suffer from two kinds of exile. In addition to the exterior exile, or physical separation from their country, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854233

  • Conversations with Carlos Alfonzo = Conversaciones con Carlos Alfonzo
    Herzberg, Julia P.; Alfonzo, Carlos, 1950-1991
    Julia P. Herzberg opens her interview with Carlos Alfonzo by asking him about the period of transition following his immigration to the U.S. from Cuba in 1980. Alfonzo touches on the two- to three-year period in which he did not paint, referring to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 848257

  • Art in exile
    Pau-Llosa, Ricardo
    This article by Ricardo Pau-Llosa focuses on the motif of the human body as the one theme that constantly recurs throughout the work of Cuban-American artists. He notes that this is unique given the distance that they live from one another. So that, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 847866

  • Por decisión o por circunstancia : razones de un exilio inevitable
    Fuentes-Pérez, Ileana
    This Spanish version of Ileana Fuentes-Pérez’s essay published in Outside Cuba: Contemporary Cuban Visual Artists, the catalogue for the exhibition of the same title held from 1987 to 1989 in six cities of the U.S., focuses on the reasons why so [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 845256

  • By choice or by circumstance : the inevitable exile of artists
    Fuentes-Pérez, Ileana
    Ileana Fuentes-Pérez’s essay published in Outside Cuba: Contemporary Cuban Visual Artists, the catalogue for the exhibition of the same title held from 1987 to 1989 in six cities of the U.S., focuses on the reasons why so many Cuban artists went [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 845231

  • Introduction = Introducción
    Cruz-Taura, Graciella
    Graciella Cruz-Taura’s bilingual essay introduces the exhibition, Outside Cuba: Contemporary Cuban Visual Artists (1987-89), and the contributing essayists for the catalogue. She notes that, in Cuba’s artistic production, external influences— [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 845208

  • Some notes on why latin american artists come to New York
    Belkin, Arnold
    According to Arnold Belkin, “the Canadian son of Mexican mural painting,” the imperialist policy of the United States of America toward Latin America, as well as the prevailing climate of repression there, prompted many Latin American artists to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825608

  • La travesía del Sinaia
    This essay commemorates the first anniversary of the arrival of the Sinaia, the French ship that brought the first wave of Spanish refugees to Veracruz in 1939, and mentions that the date coincides with the shameful Nazi occupation of Paris (June [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 824645

  • Granell
    Millas, Jorge
    The Chilean poet, Jorge Millas, who at the time was a professor at the University of Puerto Rico, wrote the introduction of the exhibition catalog on Eugenio Fernández Granell’s works, the Spanish artist living in exile in Puerto Rico. Millas [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 823649

  • El Color de la Palabra : 32 Artistas Cubanos; Entrevistas de Gustavo Valdes Jr.
    In these 32 interviews, Gustavo Valdés, Jr. brings together five generations of Cuban artists living and working in both exile and the Diaspora, ranging from those born in the late 1910s, to those raised and educated in the United States who define [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 821599

  • Darío Suro
    Anreus, Alejandro
    This is an obituary essay by Alejandro Anreus on the Dominican painter Darío Suro (1918–97). A former student of Diego Rivera and Manuel Rodríguez Lozano during his stay in Mexico in the 1940s, Suro’s trajectory as a painter—evolving from [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 809430

  • [Letter] 1970 April 3 [to] a Darcy Ribeiro
    Celso Furtado
    In this text, celebrated intellectual Celso Furtado—the former minister of economics—contemplates the possibility of the conciliation of ideological and intellectual processes given the outdated social structure of Brazil. He argues that the “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 807720

  • El arte cubano en Puerto Rico y en el mundo
    Cherson, Samuel B.
    In this article, Samuel B. Cherson, a Cuban critic living in Puerto Rico, writes about Cuban artists in exile. He mentions the artists who organized an exhibition in Puerto Rico, and who have made a name for themselves on the island, as well as [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 804991

  • Identidad y variaciones : el pensamiento visual en el exilio desde 1959
    Pau-Llosa, Ricardo
    Ricardo Pau-Llosa’s essay discusses six generations of modern and contemporary Cuban artists, most in exile, and their art as it deals with alienation and uprooting. According to Pau-Llosa, the first generation (1920s) includes the founding fathers [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801497

  • Identity and variations: Cuban visual thinking in exile since 1959
    Pau-Llosa, Ricardo
    Ricardo Pau-Llosa’s essay discusses six generations of modern and contemporary Cuban artists, most in exile, and their art as it deals with alienation and uprooting. According to Pau-Llosa, the first generation (1920s) includes the founding fathers [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 800345

  • Llamamiento a los intelectuales de América
    Reyes, Alfonso, 1889-1959
    This appeal asks Latin American thinkers to attend the Conferencia Panamericana de Ayuda [Pan-American Aid Conference] in support of Spanish Republicans, to be held in Mexico City, February 14–17, 1940. The goal was to express solidarity with those [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 783670

  • La recuperación de la memoria en la serie de pinturas ‘Dominó/Domino’ de Bibiana Suarez
    Goergen, Juana Q.
    Using the theoretical framework of “broken memory,” defined by Arcadio Díaz-Quiñones as memory "deliberately denied by political power or broken by official repression or cultural exclusion," Juana N. Goergen analyzes signs and imagery of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 782704

  • Giménez Botey
    Calders, Pere, 1912-
    In this article, Pere Calders refers to the Catalan sculptor José Giménez Botey—who lives in exile in Mexico—as a Latino, Mediterranean artist who was profoundly influenced by both his native land, Cataluña, and by Mexico, the country where he [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 773029

  • Enrique Climent
    Climent Palahi, Enric
    The anonymous author of this essay discusses landscapes by Enrique Climent, the painter living in exile, referring to the artist’s restraint and sparseness, and exemplifies, as in his painting of a simple track with a clump of trees to one side. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 773016

  • Antonio Ballester : Escultor Español en México
    This brief text refers to a 1935 newspaper article by Manuel Abril about the Concurso Nacional de Escultura [National Sculpture Contest] whose theme was “Conmemoración a Lope de Vega” [In Remembrance of Lope de Vega]. Abril reports that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 773008

  • El surrealismo entre viejo y nuevo mundo (Segunda y tercera de cuatro partes)
    Larrea, Juan
    In this section of his four-part essay, Juan Larrea discusses the creation, development, transcendence, and objectives of Surrealism, referring to a particular case to express the significance of the movement. He mentions Víctor Brauner, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772520

  • El surrealismo entre viejo y nuevo mundo (Primera de cuatro partes)
    Larrea, Juan
    Juan Larrea, the Spanish writer living in exile in Mexico, refers to an article by André Breton (“Situación del surrealismo entre las dos guerras” [The State of Surrealism between the Two Wars]), in which the leader of the movement outlines a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772513

  • Sobre la Bienal franquista
    Renau Montoro, José
    José Renau discusses the significance of the first Spanish-American Art Biennial, sponsored by Francisco Franco. According to Renau, the goal of the exhibition was to “establish a link between Spain’s robust pictorial tradition and the effete [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772483

  • Primera exposición conjunta de artistas plásticos mexicanos y españoles residentes en México
    Chávez Morado, José, 1909-2002
    In this article the Mexican painter Chávez Morado reviews the first group exhibition presented by Mexican and Spanish artists living in Mexico; the event was conceived as a riposte to the Iberian-American Art Biennial proposed by Francisco Franco’ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772450

  • Atmósfera y sangre del color : Roberto Balbuena
    In this article Ceferino Palencia, the Spanish art critic and painter living in exile in Mexico, sketches a brief biography of Roberto Fernández Balbuena, portraying him as a well-known architect and painter with a clearly defined vision. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 765762

  • El pintor José García Narezo
    Andújar, Manuel
    Manuel Andújar discusses José García Narezo’s work. It has been several years since the former has seen the latter’s paintings, and he remarks that he now finds them more complete, and discerns a new stage in the artist’s process and motives [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 765751

  • Galería de Arte de la Librería de Cristal : Exposición Hispano Mexicana
    Varela, Lorenzo
    In this article, Lorenzo Varela reviews the work of two of the artists who took part in a Hispanic-American exhibition: the Mexican painter Juan Soriano, and Mariano Rodríguez Orgaz, the Spaniard living in exile in Mexico. Focusing his critical eye [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759141

  • De lo vivo a lo pintado : Viaje imaginativo en torno a la pintura del Cordobés Antonio Rodríguez Luna
    Tapia, Daniel
    By evoking Córdoba, Spain, Antonio Rodríguez Luna’s native city, Daniel Tapia approaches the work of this painter by playing with the terms: “from what is lived to what is painted.” The tragic aspect of living in exile is what his works most [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759127

  • El arte y la sociedad
    Nelken, Margarita
    In the late 1940s, Margarita Nelken reflects on the difficulties facing artistic creation during a period marked by a “lack of poise and harmony.” The new art must not distance itself from society: “The individualist formula that has lasted [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759115

  • De la tierra y de la patria
    Moreno Villa, José
    This article provides thoughts on the meaning of land and the mother country. For José Moreno Villa, a Spanish artist exiled in Mexico during the Spanish Civil War, the mother country is made up of “my friendships, my stuff—or small material [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759104

  • Las cosas claras
    Bergamín, José, 1895-1983
    José Bergamín, a writer from Madrid living in exile in Mexico, draws up a welcoming speech as a member of the Junta de Cultura Española addressed to all of those who worked in Spain for its cultural life and for his defense. He further addresses [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759093