Topic Descriptor: Latin American×
  • El asunto
    Vasconcelos, José
    1926
    In two chapters from his book Indología, José Vasconcelos outlines his concept of a culturally and politically unified Latin America, discussing how Latin America’s internal conflicts and its disagreements with the United States could be resolved [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832563

  • El camino cierto
    Rodríguez, Alirio
    1965
    In this article, Alirio Rodríguez discusses the definition and scope of Latin American painting, and its universal exposure. He stresses the importance of Figuration and Abstraction, both of which influence current and future painting in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799032

  • El continente enfermo
    Zumeta, César, 1863-1955
    1961
    In light of the Spanish-American War (1896), with which the United States put an end to Spain’s colonial presence in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, César Zumeta issues a warning about the weakness of tropical Central American countries, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 843008

  • El empoderamiento de lo local
    Buntinx, Gustavo
    2005
    In this lecture, Gustavo Buntinx looks to convince his listeners that the current idea of “Latin American art” is an imperialist construct, and argues that the only solution is for them to reinvent it in its entirety. He begins by declaring that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065640

  • El espíritu Latinoamericano : la perspectiva desde los Estados Unidos
    Goldman, Shifra M., 1926-
    1989
    In “El Espíritu Latinoamericano: La perspectiva desde los Estados Unidos,” Shifra M. Goldman criticizes the political and cultural criteria underlying the exhibition of Latin American art entitled Latin American Spirit: Art and Artists in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1090039

  • El espléndido no conformismo de Marta Traba
    Bayón, Damián
    1984
    The critic Damián Bayón, who lived in Puerto Rico for a period, considers Marta Traba a “critic-judge,”“radical critic,” and even a “theorist-critic” due to her social and political commitment. Bayón discusses how early on Traba [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 824958

  • El estado del arte latinoamericano en Europa
    Bayón, Damián
    1984
    The Argentine critic Damián Bayón briefly summarizes the state of Latin American art in Europe. Many artists are there for just a short time, they come and then leave; most are men and the majority live in Paris. Most are painters, although there [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 805721

  • El éxodo del artista latinoamericano : apuntes de una ponencia de Damián Bayón en el simposio "Arte en el Caribe", editados con la ayuda de don José Buitrago
    Bayón, Damián
    1979
    The Argentine critic Damián Bayón, who lived in Puerto Rico in the 1950s, claims that the exodus of Latin American artists was good for their aesthetic education. He adds that some artists left their countries when they were very young and were [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822632

  • El falso apocalipsis del arte latinoamericano
    Guillent Pérez, J. R.
    1965
    Making use of his philosophical background, J. R. Guillent Pérez critically analyzes the article by Marta Traba published in Caracas under the title “El arte latinoamericano: un falso apocalipsis.” In his judgment, Traba has not understood the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799219

  • El futuro de nuestra lengua
    Rosenblat, Ángel, 1902-1984
    1977
    Ángel Rosenblat studies the changes that have occurred in the Spanish language over the last two hundred years, supported by his historical and linguistic research into various cultures. The philologist analyzes the place of that language in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815645

  • El Museo del Barrio's permanent collection : revealing a treasure
    Torruella Leval, Susana
    2003
    Susana Torruella Leval relates her experience as curator and director of El Museo del Barrio throughout the 1990s. She discusses the process of maintaining professional standards of care for the museum collections of Puerto Rican, Latino, and Latin [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 804680

  • El porqué del creciente interés en el arte latinoamericano en los Estados Unidos
    Barnitz, Jacqueline
    1978
    The United States art professor and historian Jacqueline Barnitz wrote a detailed report on a number of North American exhibitions of work created by Latin American artists in the 1960s and 1970s. She pays special attention to the 1970s, when there [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815530

  • El presagio de América
    Reyes, Alfonso, 1889-1959
    1942
    In these three extracts from the first chapter of his book Última Tule, Alfonso Reyes considers the history of conquest and how it has fostered mythic notions of the Americas. In the text “Colón y Américo Vespucio,” he corrects the historical [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 839023

  • El problema de la ‘existencia’ del artista latinoamericano
    Traba, Marta
    1956
    In this text, Marta Traba considers the problem of how Latin American artists can produce art “continental” in character at a moment when realism is not the contemporary mode of expression. She introduces the problem by observing how European [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1061801

  • El rol del crítico
    Román, Élida
    1978
    Curator and art critic Élida Román divides her presentation into two parts. She first tries to define not only the objective of art criticism but also to identify the craft and reach of art critics.  Román then presents a diagnosis on the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815617

  • El Taller Panamericano de Grabado
    Torres Martinó, José Antonio, 1916-2011
    Puerto Rican artist and critic José A. Torres Martinó asserts that there is widespread ignorance about the island of Puerto Rico, which he attributes to its isolation, which is the result of its political subordination. This has created a distance [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 805408

  • El verdadero arte Latinoamericano
    Pau-Llosa, Ricardo
    Cuban-American critic Ricardo Pau-Llosa asserts that there is a distinctive Latin American modern art that developed in the 1920s and 1930s. In his view, the privileged resource of Latin American visual approach is metaphor, whereas North American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 844337

  • Elementos constantes en el arte iberoamericano
    1978
    In her presentation, the Mexican art critic Berta Taracena aims to provide the elements consistent with Latin American art previously observed and documented by art history, as well as by art critics. The author points out that the indigenous element [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815558

  • Empreintes territoriales
    Palomera, Federica, 1954-
    1999
    Federica Palomero launches into this essay with a brief history of the MBA (Museo de Bellas Artes) in Caracas, and the steady growth of the Museum’s Collection of Latin American Art. Palomero posits that one can see the history of Latin American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162151

  • En torno al mito de un "Arte Latinoamericano"
    Rodríguez, Alirio
    1978
    In this lecture, the painter Alirio Rodríguez pushes back against the critics’ constant harping on “Latin American” art and a distinctive “Latin Americanism in painting.” He identifies some of the contradictions he sees in that line of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815516

  • Entre fronteiras : pensando sobre a arte
    Zielinsky, Mônica
    2000
    In this essay, Mônica Zielinsky looks at the state of art at the end of the twentieth century, trying to identify the subjects that artists are using; that is, what they are looking for in their work, especially in Latin America. Her reflections are [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 808119

  • Espacio y región en el arte contemporáneo: una mirada histórica, política y cultural
    Peluffo Linari, Gabriel
    2005
    This essay by the Uruguayan architect and researcher Gabriel Peluffo Linari seeks to explain how aesthetic spaces (understood as symbolic construction zones) and political power spaces are connected in Latin American societies. The author sees a need [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 808152

  • Etsedrón o la carencia de interés libidinoso por la realidad
    Torrens, María Luisa
    1975
    In this text, María Luisa Torrens responds to Aracy Amaral’s article arguing that the installation entitled Etsedrón, which appeared at the 1975 (XIII) São Paulo Biennial, constituted a promising new direction for Latin American art. Torrens [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065137

  • Exposición de La Habana 1967 : Galería Latinoamericana
    Galería Latinoamericana (La Habana, Cuba)
    1967
    This catalogue includes a brief unsigned introduction that discusses the quality of the prints on exhibit in the Exposición de La Habana 1967 held at the Galería Latinoamericana in the Casa de las Américas [House of the Americas], Havana, Cuba. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864199

  • Fala, Hélio
    Pape, Lygia; Oiticica, Hélio, 1937-1980
    1978
    Lygia Pape interviews Hélio Oiticica after he had returned from having lived for a period in New York. When asked about the term “Latin American art,” Oiticica says that he does not believe his work fits into that category, which he considers [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111054

  • Fantástico são os outros
    Amaral, Aracy A., 1930-
    1987
    This is the text of the lecture given by Aracy Amaral at the symposium presented on the occasion of the Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920?1987 exhibition, in which she discusses the meaning of the term “fantastic,” particularly in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 776644

  • Foreword
    Barr, Alfred Hamilton, 1902-1981
    1943
    In this text, Alfred H. Barr, Jr. introduces the catalog of the collection of Latin American art of the Museum of Modern Art with remarks reviewing the history of the museum’s involvement with Latin American art and recent efforts to expand its [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 838005

  • Foreword
    Lugo, Denise
    Denise Lugo, in this foreword to the exhibition catalogue Paul Sierra:  A Cultural Corridor, discusses what she calls “Latinismo,” which she explains as “the diverse American Latino aesthetic sensibility,” and its relationship to American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 857114

  • From Latin American Art to Art from Latin America
    Mosquera, Gerardo
    2003
    Gerardo Mosquera considers the usefulness of the idea of Latin American art, ultimately taking a firm position against it as it has been understood up to now. He begins by describing Latin American culture’s “neurosis of identity” as the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065622

  • Fronteiras da Europa
    Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de, 1902-
    1936
    In this text, Sérgio Buarque de Holanda analyzes what he sees as a fundamental aspect of the origin of Brazilian society: the effort to import Iberian culture to America. In the text, Holanda reminds us that Iberia was an “uncertain” region [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1054600

  • Genealogia del entre-lugar modernista
    ANTELO, Raúl
    2006
    This essay by Professor Raúl Antelo addresses the issue of place in a theory concerning the marginalizing of Latin American culture, more specifically within South America. This culture has always been viewed through a prism of exclusion and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 808262

  • Guardias de la pluma
    Reyes, Alfonso, 1889-1959
    1930
    Alfonso Reyes wrote this letter to Waldo Frank in New York with the purpose of sending him a clipping (or perhaps a transcription) of a text Reyes had published in an Argentine newspaper about his friendship with Frank on the occasion of Frank’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1054203

  • Hacia la eventual incidencia de la revista de arte latinoamericano en nuestra identificación
    Carbonell, Galaor, 1938-
    1978
    In this article, defined by its author as “of a utopian nature,” artist and critic Galaor Carbonell analyzes the limitations, objectives, methodology, and functions of a cultural magazine that could operate in Latin America from a sociological [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815603

  • Hacia la sociohistoria de nuestra realidad artística
    Acha, Juan, 1916-1995
    Juan Acha, the Peruvian critic and historian who has lived in Mexico long time ago, claims that it is a mistake to see art criticism as an appendix to artistic expression. According to Acha, art criticism “should examine artistic reality and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 805661

  • Historias de islas
    Traba, Marta
    1956
    In this article, Marta Traba warns about the conditions she finds in Latin American criticism: its tendency to use flattery because its art world is small and its lack of aesthetic sense. In addition, she raises the issue that the Latin American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855005

  • Homogenizing Hispanic Art
    Goldman, Shifra M., 1926-
    1987
    In this text, Shifra Goldman examines the problematic homogenization of the idea of “Hispanic” art and culture that was promoted by the exhibition Hispanic Art in the United States: Thirty Contemporary Painters and Sculptors organized by The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065232

  • Homogenizing hispanic art
    Goldman, Shifra M., 1926-
    1987
    This document by Shifra Goldman is a review of the 1987 exhibition Hispanic Artists: 30 Contemporary Painters and Sculptors held at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., in 1987. Goldman applauds the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1127533

  • HOT! An Exhibition Created by Seven Latino Artist
    1996
    In this essay for an exhibition of seven contemporary Latino artists entitled HOT!, Grant Samuelsen considers the term "magical realism" and its inadequacy as a label applied to contemporary Latino art. Samuelsen states that such labeling robs these [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 867555

  • I. La inconexión de América ; II. Espacio y tiempo en el alma americana
    Moraes Neto, Prudente de, 1904-1977
    1932
    Brazilian poet and journalist Prudente de Moraes Neto remarks on the chance discovery of Alfonso Reyes in European magazines, remarking on how difficult it is to obtain books by Latin American authors in Brazil and the ease by which you can obtain [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1054457

  • Identifying the links between photography and painting in Latin America visual thinking = Identificación de los nexos entre fotografía y pintura en el pensamiento visual Latinoamericano
    Pau-Llosa, Ricardo
    1986
    In this bilingual essay, Cuban poet and art critic Ricardo Pau-Llosa argues that Latin American painting and photography are inextricably linked by the presence of thematic similarities and shared motifs, despite their obvious formal differences. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1081936

  • Identity and freedom : a challenge for the nineties
    Torruella Leval, Susana
    1990
    This essay posits the 1980s as a period of intense self-reflection among Latin American artists living in the United States. Susana Torruella Leval considers the complex relationships of these artists to the tumultuous North American art milieu, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1127509

  • III. El hombre cordial, producto americano
    Couto, Rui Ribeiro, 1898-1963
    1932
    In this document, Brazilian poet, journalist, and short-story writer, Ribeiro Couto, states that “true Americanism” rejects the idea of Indianism, yet calls on these same indigenous races to make contributions to “Iberian” man. This fusion [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1054477

  • Imaginando territorios : reflexiones dispersas sobre arte en (Latino) América
    Amor, Monica
    1996
    Curator Mónica Amor analyzes the exhibition, Sin fronteras/ Arte latinoamericano actual, held at the Museo Alejandro Otero in Caracas in 1996. She discusses the significance of the show in the context of the debates that had taken place in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1155284

  • Incomplete glossary of sources of Latin American art
    Herkenhoff, Paulo
    1993
    This is a collection of sarcastic, occasionally humorous “definitions” of terms that help to understand Latin American art. Some are taken from research conducted into methods used in art production in the region (such as “cannibalism,” “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 808171

  • Indagación : ¿qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Torres Bodet, Jaime
    1928
    In this text, Jaime Torres Bodet responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” Torres Bodet notes the anxiety created by this question and warns of the dangers of defining [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832061

  • Indagación: ¿qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Enríquez, Carlos
    1929
    In this text, Carlos Enríquez responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” He specifically addresses each of the four sub-questions grouped under this larger question. In [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832163

  • Indagación: ¿qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Ramos, José Antonio, 1885-1946
    1929
    In this text, José Antonio Ramos responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” Ramos begins by taking issue with the question itself, arguing that there should be no [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832276

  • Individualismo y nacionalidad
    Rojas, Ricardo, 1882-1957
    1951
    In “Individualismo y nacionalidad,” Argentine journalist and writer Ricardo Rojas deconstructs the terms “race” and “nationality.” Rojas argues that a person can adopt a new race or nationality, replacing that of their native country. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125479

  • Interamericanismo
    Freyre, Gilberto, 1900-1987
    1942
    In this article, Gilberto Freyre points out a common trait he sees among the peoples of the Americas and, especially, in the field of inter-American relationships. He refers to areas where he can affirm the people’s natural ability to combine unity [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 807911

  • Interrogantes
    Le Parc, Julio
    1978
    In the introduction to his questionnaire, the visual artist Julio Le Parc notes that art, being a product of social importance, needs group feedback. The first part of the questionnaire focuses on the definition, function, and social relationship of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815575