Topic Descriptor: Surrealist×
  • Diego y el trotskismo
    Reyes Palma, Francisco
    This article places Diego Rivera’s Trotskyist period within his phase of painting murals in the United States and in Mexico. It reveals affinities and differences he had with various intellectuals and artists’ organizations, as well as his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 754296

  • El arte de ensueño de Leonora Larrington (sic)
    Palencia Alvarez Tubau, Ceferino
    According to Palencia, Leonora Carrington is unique among Surrealist painters because she knows how to harmonize, combine, and fuse the naïve aspects of primitive art with the modern expression of André Breton. The critic says that Carrington [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 765080

  • El arte independiente y claro de Frida Kahlo
    Palencia Alvarez Tubau, Ceferino
    According to Ceferino Palencia, the Spanish art critic living in exile in Mexico, Frida Kahlo’s pictorial art was an eloquent example of will in service to sensitivity. Palencia speaks of Frida’s lifelong rebellion against her mother’s violent [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 826847

  • El escultor Herbert Hofmann Isenbourg
    Luna Arroyo, Antonio
    This is the Mexican critic Antonio Luna Arroyo’s biographical sketch of the German sculptor Herbert Hofmann-Isenbourg. It spans the latter’s education in philosophy and aesthetics in Berlin, his travels—including three trips around the world— [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772495

  • El huevo filosófico
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    In this text, Mario Pellegrini, the Argentinean critic, reflects about the different understandings of reality. Pellegrini states that, while common man takes sensory perception as a source of learning, the Surrealists do not get rid of any aspect [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745210

  • El movimiento surrealista
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    This article by Pellegrini analyzes Surrealism by taking into account some of the daily life changes at the beginning of the twentieth century: the standardization and dehumanizing brought about by capitalist industrialization, as well as the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745425

  • El mundo de Carmelo Carra
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    The text presents the work of Carmelo Carrá stating that they represent the real world seen by someone without prejudice. They deal with an anti-conventional reality, and the result is unpredictable, limitless and open to new discoveries. It is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745055

  • El poder de la palabra
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    This text reflects on the power of words, keeping in mind that each human being includes a little of himself or herself into the words that he or she uses. Avoiding to discuss the usefulness of language, Aldo Pellegrini raises two points: its [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745248

  • El simbolismo criollo de Julio Tomás Martínez
    Nolla, Olga
    The Puerto Rican writer Olga Nolla writes in-depth about some of the works produced by the Puerto Rican artist Julio Tomás Martínez. According to her, Martínez was influenced by Symbolism, Surrealism, and Futurism, which set him apart from his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 824059

  • El sueño diluido en el arte
    Jiménez, Guillermo
    Toward the end of the 1930s, Carlos Orozco Romero was nearly the last living representative of the generation that founded the Centro Bohemio de Guadalajara [Bohemian Center of Guadalajara]. Despite the fact that his career had been headed more [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 752308

  • El surrealismo entre viejo y nuevo mundo
    Larrea, Juan
    In this final part of his lengthy essay, Juan Larrea acknowledges the reality of the Americas as the high point of the Surrealist movement. He states: “as the West flounders in the gloom, the tides of history [have] carried several representative [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772528

  • El surrealismo entre viejo y nuevo mundo (Primera de cuatro partes)
    Larrea, Juan
    Juan Larrea, the Spanish writer living in exile in Mexico, refers to an article by André Breton (“Situación del surrealismo entre las dos guerras” [The State of Surrealism between the Two Wars]), in which the leader of the movement outlines a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772513

  • El surrealismo entre viejo y nuevo mundo (Segunda y tercera de cuatro partes)
    Larrea, Juan
    In this section of his four-part essay, Juan Larrea discusses the creation, development, transcendence, and objectives of Surrealism, referring to a particular case to express the significance of the movement. He mentions Víctor Brauner, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772520

  • En blanca y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    The majority of the excerpts from articles published throughout 1954 by Luis Miró Quesada Garland addresses the issues of art theory and exhibition critiques. In the overall summary of the year for his column “En blanca y negra,” the author [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137283

  • En blanca y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    In this text, Luis Miró Quesada Garland enumerates the main formal virtues of the works in the exhibition of Surrealism held at the Galería de Lima in July 1954. In his view, the show reflects none of the movement’s initial aggressiveness in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138599

  • En blanco y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    In this text, Luis Miró Quesada Garland offers theoretical observations on the Surrealist exhibition held at the Galería de Lima in July 1954. On the basis of specific quotes, the author disputes the arguments put forth by writer Sebastián Salazar [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138620

  • En memoria de Remedios Varo: (1913-1963)
    Neuvillate, Alfonso de
    Alfonso de Neuvillate reviews the life and work of Remedios Varo, in a tribute to the Spanish painter who had died a few days earlier. Neuvillate believed that Varo, an exponent of Surrealism, had long since staked out an important space in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 771600

  • Encuestas : Juegos Surrealistas
    On January 22, 1956, seven members of the Surrealist group, El Mirador Azul, including Eugenio Fernández Granell, a Galician artist living in Puerto Rico, met in the studio of the Universidad de Puerto Rico (UPR) to carry out a 14-question survey. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822275

  • Evolución del arte moderno en la Argentina
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    Pellegrini's text remarks that during the nineteenth century, Argentine art mainly adapted to academic patterns. For the later evolution of Modern art, the critic adopts a division based on three fundamental periods: first, the artists who absorb [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745452

  • Exilios y descentramientos
    Reyes Palma, Francisco
    The art historian Francisco Reyes Palma briefly describes the construction of an image of 1930s Mexico in accordance with the aesthetic/political strategy of Surrealism. He starts by talking about the relationships that arose among the painter Diego [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794626

  • Exposición Antonio Berni : Sala III
    Berni, Antonio, 1905-1981
    Antonio Berni organizes the works he exhibited at Amigos del Arte [Friends of Art] in 1932 into the following groups: Plastic art, subjective realist compositions, nightmares, and objective realism. Berni created these works between 1928 and 1932 [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 769686

  • Exposición César Moro
    Tenaud, Ricardo
    According to the author of this text, the works by César Moro on exhibit are aggressively disconcerting; indeed, there is “nothing to say about ‘things’ so removed from mainstream painting.” The author points out that, at this time, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293639

  • Exposición de pintura moderna en la Academia Alcedo
    More, Federico, 1889-1955
    Poet César Moro describes the confusion and expectations of the public at the Surrealist art show, while also questioning the judgments pronounced on the show by “those charmers from the base police known as critics of purpose and profit,” whose [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293605

  • Exposición El Mirador Azul
    Universidad de Puerto Rico
    A list of the eleven artists who took part in the 1957 exhibition organized by the Surrealist group, El Mirador Azul [Blue Lookout Point], and their works: Frank, M. Espada, R. Alberty, F. del Valle, J. Jolguera, L. Maisonet, Lima, Granell, G. L. Mu [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 823591

  • Exposición superrealista Moro-Valencia
    More, Federico, 1889-1955
    This text announces the upcoming opening of the show of Surrealism organized by César Moro at the Academia Alcedo in Lima. The writer, who confesses he has not seen the show, comments that it is the first Surrealist exhibition to take place in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293589

  • Expressionismo no Rio
    Bonfanti, Gino
    This is a review of the exhibition of drawings and watercolors by Franz Weissmann at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes. Bonfanti detects the influence of Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and Pablo Picasso in these pieces, and sees in Weissmann’s work [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 780855

  • Farewell au Surrealisme
    Paalen, Wolfgang
    Wolfgang Paalen claimed that Surrealism helped him to experience a total synthesis that denied any arbitrary separation between the visual arts and poetry, as well as between poetry and life. In his opinion, this movement offered the only working [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772030

  • Fernández
    Fernández, Agustín, 1928-
    In Agustin Fernandez’s artist statement, he begins with his formal training at the San Alejandro Academy. He also discusses how he “was to be nourished by a thousand things when [he] went abroad” and was greatly influenced by both Enrique Senal [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 801554

  • Fiesta del surrealismo
    Huerta, Efraín
    Un chien andalou [Un perro andaluz (1929) [An Andalusian Dog]—a film directed by Luis Buñuel, with a script written by Buñuel and Salvador Dalí—was presented in Mexico nine years after it was shot. Efraín Huerta, a writer by trade and an [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774343

  • Figuras y aspectos de la vida mundial : El Segundo manifiesto del suprarrealismo (1)
    Mariátegui, José Carlos, 1894-1930
    According to José Carlos Mariátegui, Breton (in his second manifesto) “prosecuted” all the writers and artists who, having initially embraced surrealism, then renounced it. Though he mentions the attacks on Pierre Naville, he claims that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293556

  • Frida Kahlo
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    Cardoza y Aragón believes Mexican painting had reached a unique and magnificent era and in his judgment, some of the works by Frida Kahlo were “some of the best” that had been produced in the last fifteen years. He describes her work as “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 753118

  • Frida Kahlo
    Cardona Peña, Alfredo
    The article mentions several of the traits that make Frida Kahlo quite unique, even today, and combines some of them with certain elements that gave her production its distinct quality. Kahlo’s work, according to Cardona Peña is distinguished by a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 765786

  • Frida Kahlo : su ser y su arte
    Flores Guerrero, Raúl
    Flores Guerrero believed that as an artist Frida Kahlo had been honest with herself and with her era. Her subjective expression in painting was a natural process that mirrored her innermost life as well as an awareness of her body. As an exponent of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 753092

  • Frida Kahlo : Una investigación estética
    Westheim, Paul
    Paul Westheim believes that, as an artist, Frida Kahlo belongs to an alternative trend, and he describes her as a “outstanding painter.” The critic emphasizes Kahlo’s pictorial qualities, a “subtle and expressive” technique, a palette “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 753102

  • Fuentes concretas del surrealismo de Poleo
    Noriega, Simón
    In this chapter of his book, art historian and critic Simón Noriega provides the most extensive and exacting analysis of the life and work of painter Héctor Poleo available in Venezuela at the time. The text is crucial to understanding the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1153819

  • Gestación y advenimiento
    Schneider, Luis Mario
    The first chapter of the book Gestación y Advenimiento, México y el surrealismo, 1925-1950 [Gestation and Advent, Mexico and Surrealism, 1925-1950] is dedicated to the Surrealist presence in Mexico. From a literary perspective, Luis Mario Schneider [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799727

  • Hablan los artistas argentinos
    Berni, Antonio, 1905-1981
    Antonio Berni chronicles the various points of view that were expressed during the exhibition of visual arts organized by Latidud [Latitude] magazine in the city of Mar del Plata in 1945. Berni’s comments range from the artistic to the political [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 776975

  • Historia abierta
    Traba, Marta
    Art critic Marta Traba authored the essay “Historia abierta,” which was included among the texts for the exhibition América: Mirada interior. Figari, Reverón, Santa María, in Bogotá, July 4 through August 18, 1985, published by the Banco de [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1107039

  • Indagación: ¿qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Avilés Ramírez, Eduardo
    In this text, Eduardo Avilés Ramírez responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” He specifically addresses each of the four sub-questions grouped under this larger [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832146

  • Indagación: ¿qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Enríquez, Carlos
    In this text, Carlos Enríquez responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” He specifically addresses each of the four sub-questions grouped under this larger question. In [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832163

  • Introduction
    Ratcliff, Carter
    In this essay, American art critic Carter Ratcliff offers a wide-ranging analysis of the diverse themes explored by Puerto Rican-born, New York-based artist, Rafael Ferrer, in his exhibition, Deseo [Desire] from 1973. According to the author, Ferrer [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799276

  • Introduction
    Cancel, Luis R.
    In this introduction, Luis Cancel explains the logic behind how he and his colleagues organized the exhibition The Latin American Spirit: Art and Artists in the United States, 1920-1970. He also explains, at length, the curatorial team’s larger [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065293

  • Introduction
    Day, Holliday T.; Sturges, Hollister
    In this introduction, Holliday T. Day and Hollister Sturges explain how the theme of “the fantastic” underlies the art of the twenty-nine artists included in the exhibition The Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987. In explaining their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065330

  • Ismael Nery : excertos de textos
    Andrade, Mário de, 1893-1945
    In this article, the writer and critic Mário de Andrade discusses the painter Ismael Nery’s creative process, mentioning aspects such as the unfinished look of his works, his compositional work in a Figurative vein, and his desire to build an [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110382

  • Jean Dubuffet o la poética de lo desagradable
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    This article analyzes Jean Dubuffet’s work within the framework of the trend it demonstrates to those artists concerned with the very essence of painting. Pellegrini stresses that for this French artist, art without spontaneity is impossible [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745484

  • Juegos surrealistas
    The group of artists who were members of the Surrealist group El Mirador Azul [Blue Lookout Point] used to gather at the home of Adna Rodríguez in Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, where they would write down phrases and sentences on random subjects that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822303

  • La conquista de lo maravilloso
    Pellegrini, Aldo
    In this essay on the “marvelous,” the term takes on the meaning derived from literature as “a manifestation of imagination’s free creative strength.” The essay also contains the academic concept based on the popular notion that relates the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 745412

  • La obra de Montenegro
    Fernández, Justino
    This short article reviews the career of the artist from Jalisco, Roberto Montenegro. In Justino Fernández’s opinion, Montenegro is characterized by his “sensitivity to change, enticed by motion.” With these words, the historian celebrates the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 804401

  • La realidad ensoñada en la pintura de Frida Cahlo [sic]
    Palencia Alvarez Tubau, Ceferino
    In Palencia’s view, Frida Kahlo is one of the best representatives of the oneiric or surrealist genre. Nevertheless, he believes she should be included within this group with certain restrictions and limits. The quote by André Bretón (“Frida [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 753081

  • Las "Instituciones de cultura" nos roban el oxígeno, afirman
    In this article the members of the group El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68) explain what prompted them to create the group. Keeping the works of the Surrealist and Dadaist movements in mind, but with no intention of reviving them, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060199