Name Descriptor: Bienal Internacional de Sâo Paulo×
  • ¿Autenticidad o exotismo?
    Abril de Vivero, Francisco
    1977
    The author of this article, Francisco Abril de Vivero, claims that the decision to send arts and crafts instead of “fine arts” to represent Peru at the 1977 Bienal de São Paulo was an act of “infra-Marxist populism.” In his opinion it was a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855918

  • [El Micla, movimiento de independencia cultural latinoamericana, al abocarse a la realización de esta Contrabienal...]
    Movimiento de independencia cultural latinoamericana (MICLA)
    1971
    The text clarifies that upon agreeing to the organization of a Contrabienal, as a protest against the 1971 São Paulo Biennial, the MICLA [Latin American Cultural Independence Movement] is not replacing one exhibition for another. Instead, it is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 766001

  • [Gertrudis Goldschmidt, Gego, figura del arte contemporáneo ... = Gertrudis Goldschmidt, Gego, figura do arte contemporaneo...]
    Avellaneda de Luna, Mariela
    1996
    With this text, Mariela Avellaneda de Luna officially presents Gego at the twenty-third São Paulo Biennial. Avellaneda points out the importance of the line in Gego’s large structures, such as the versions of Reticulárea, emphasizing the way the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149565

  • [Letter, 1970?] Nueva York [to] Lorenzo Homar
    Camnitzer, Luis
    1971
    In this letter, Uruguayan artist and academic Luis Camnitzer tells printmaker Lorenzo Homar that he and the other artists at his New York Graphic Workshop had managed to get the Center for Inter-American Relations to suspend a New York exhibition of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 856511

  • [Letter, s.d, s.n, Puerto Rico to] Pedro [Alcántara]
    Homar, Lorenzo
    In this brief letter to Pedro Alcántara, Puerto Rican printmaker Lorenzo Homar expresses his view of art biennials. He states that many of them “act as lackeys to the North American market.” Homar believes that the jury should not be indifferent [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 824029

  • [Letter] 1951 March 8, São Paulo [to] Yolanda Penteado
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    1951
    This is a letter from Lourival Gomes Machado, director of the I Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, to Yolanda Penteado, one of the organizers of the event. Gomes Machado is writing to update Penteado on negotiations with representatives [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110824

  • [Letter] 1969 April 22, New York [to] Gyorgy Kepes
    Haacke, Hans, 1936-
    1969
    Hans Haacke’s letter shows that he pondered the invitation sent by Gyorgy Kepes and decided not to represent the United States abroad for a pair of reasons: because Americans were supporting an immoral war in Vietnam and a fascist government was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774427

  • [Letter] 1969 Janvier 17, New York [to] Pierre Restany
    Takis
    1969
    The letter from [Greek artist] Takis tells Pierre Restany that he has not represented Greece at any international cultural event since Greece’s democracy was suspended. Takis thanks Restany for the invitation and hopes he understands the situation [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774652

  • [Letter] 1969 Juin 10 [to] Cher ami
    Wilde, Eliane de
    1969
    E. de Wilde’s letter concerns the arguments that he submitted to The Netherlands Ministry of Cultural Affairs in order to withdraw the Dutch participation from the São Paulo Biennial. In this regard, he considered not only the prevailing [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774400

  • [Letter] 1969 Junio 2, París [to] Francis de Lulle
    Bury, Pol
    1969
    Pol Bury’s letter states his decision to withdraw his participation from the 1969 São Paulo Biennial due to the fact that several Brazilian artists had informed him that another biennial, held in Bahia, was compelled to close and that paintings [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774230

  • [Letter] 1981, Julio 21, São Paulo, Brasil [to] Clemente Padín
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-
    1981
    This is the Brazilian art critic and curator Walter Zanini’s official invitation to Clemente Padín, asking him to take part in the XVI Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, in 1981. The document created a “diplomatic” incident that was solved [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1242138

  • [Même dans le moment les plus durs, la France des travailleurs...]
    1969
    The text states that—although France had always been a symbol of freedom—the French government, along with its curators and some artists, was willing to send a submission to the São Paulo Biennial despite the dramatic situation that Brazil was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774679

  • [Par ordre émanent du Département Culturel du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères Brésilien...]
    1969
    This text provides information regarding the measures imposed upon Brazilian culture after the state coup of 1964. It particularly refers to the actions derived from the Institutional Act No. 5, dated December 13, 1968. Once the Parliament was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774640

  • [Tengo el honor de dirigirme a Ud. en relación a la nota no. Br. 568/22/1...]
    Sosa, Jesualdo, 1905-1982
    1961
    This document is a confidential report, perhaps to be sent to the KGB, on the three Uruguayan artists selected to participate in the 1961 São Paulo Biennial. The text addresses other aspects of the art scene in Uruguay as well, among them the group [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1238805

  • 20 Hipótesis múltiples y estructuralmente diferenciadas para las obras gráficas de Pedro Alcántara
    Viggiani, Beatriz
    1973
    Art critic Beatriz Viggiani enumerates twenty important points in the work of Colombian artist Pedro Alcántara including his disregard for formalism in relation to his graphic work. What Alcántara is interested in—according to Viggiani—is form [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 865275

  • A bienal de 85 e seu grande tema
    Gomes, Alair, 1921-1992
    1986
    In this article, the photographer and critic Alair Gomes writes about the controversial eighteenth Bienal de São Paulo (1985), commonly known as the “Grande Tela” [Large Canvas]. According to Gomes, the underlying idea of the biennial is “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110932

  • A Bienal de cá para lá
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-; Bonomi, Maria; Pessanha, José Américo; Monteiro, Paulo, 1961-; Salvador, Gilberto, 1946-; Boni, Regina; Strina, Luisa
    1991
    This document consists of a series of statements on the XXI São Paulo Biennial. Professor Walter Zanini, curator of the sixteenth and seventeenth biennials, held in 1981 and 1983 respectively, condemns a modality whereby artists are selected to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111345

  • A bienal desmontada
    Lagnado, Lisette, 1961-
    1990
    In this article the journalist Lisette Lagnado discusses the layout of the XX Bienal Internacional de São Paulo in terms of the artwork/space ratio and arrangement vis-à-vis the interaction among artists, curators, architects, and even the public. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111321

  • A gravura brasileira : os anos 60/70
    Morais, Frederico, 1936-
    1974
    The art critic Frederico Morais maintains that the print is “one of the last refuges of the visual arts” from the emergence of the new avant-gardes throughout the 1960s, in particular, Pop art. In this text, the print turns out to be the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110706

  • A II Bienal e as reivindicações dos artistas brasileiros
    Barata, Mário
    1954
    In this article, Mário Barata transcribes a manifesto written by a group of artists demanding that the São Paulo Biennial enact a number of modifications in its bylaws, particularly in relation to the selection of the jury and the artwork. It is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110905

  • A representação brasileira na IX Bienal de São Paulo
    Schenberg, Mário
    1967
    Mário Schenberg praised the organization of the Ninth São Paulo Biennial [1967] for understanding “this moment of extraordinary activity and profound renewal in Brazilian art.” His praise was based on the priority given to innovative works, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111146

  • A terceira Bienal de São Paulo : três artigos de um cronista de província
    Valladares, José
    1955
    José Valladares published three reviews of the III Bienal de São Paulo (1955) in the Diário de Notícias, the Bahia newspaper. He notes that he was close to the jury that selected the works for this edition of the international event, and then [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110829

  • Abraham Haber
    Haber, Abraham
    1971
    Abraham Haber responds to the summons to carry out a counter-biennial with his contribution, in spite of making it clear that he has received an invitation intended for the artists. He is however a professor of art history and a member of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 766142

  • Algo se pudre en el INC...
    Román, Élida
    1977
    This is a letter written by art critic Élida Román, who at the time was the director of the Museo de Arte Italiano,an art gallery dependent on the Instituto Nacional de Cultura, addressed to the leadership of said institution. The letter advises [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855811

  • Américo J. Castilla : Brasil tu carceñ es la nuestra
    Castilla, Américo
    1971
    Américo Castilla’s response to the summons to side against the 1971 São Paulo Biennial. He does it through an image that centralizes the silhouette of the Brazilian territory, in which a face melts with several vertical lines in reference to jail [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 766098

  • Aníbal Gil, maestro del grabado
    1973
    This article introduces the exhibition of prints by the Colombian artist Aníbal Gil Villa at the Centro Coltejer in the city of Medellín, where he presented his “dimensiones especiales” series. This 1977 exhibition underscored the importance of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132516

  • Antíarte artística
    Pignatari, Décio
    1967
    The controversial author Décio Pignatari visited the IX International Biennial of São Paulo in 1967, which inspired him to write a brief overview on the subject of “anti-art.” In one of his brazen statements he claims that “the Biennale is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111106

  • Apresentação
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    1951
    This text was the introduction to the Iª Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, written by the art director for the exhibition, Lourival Gomes Machado. The text explains the form in which this exhibition was proposed by the organizers, who [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110834

  • Áquila : o presente da pintura
    Coutinho, Wilson
    1987
    In this article critic Wilson Coutinho emphasizes Luiz Áquila’s pictorial contributions to art in the 1980s. Known as “the father of the ‘80s generation,” he was one of the few to continue painting during the prior experimental decade. Á [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110938

  • Argentina
    1954
    The document is in reference to the presentation of the Argentinean delegation organized by the Subsecretaría de Difusión del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República Argentina [Undersecretary for Dissemination of the Ministry of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 743249

  • Art critic K. Kemble Smith tells of an artistic exodus : in search of an understanding public to back their work
    Kemble, Kenneth, 1923-
    1961
    Kenneth Kemble comments on the award granted at the São Paulo Biennial to the Argentinean sculptress, Alicia Penalba, living in Paris. This matter allows him to analyze the exodus of artists of the new generation in search of a public with a broader [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 741077

  • Arte contemporânea brasileira
    Pedrosa, Adriano
    1998
    Adriano Pedrosa, curator of the segment “Arte Contemporânea Brasileira” in the 24th International Biennial of São Paulo (1998), states that the name of the exhibition he is curating raises the following question: “What art is (not) [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111154

  • Arte e videotexto
    Plaza, Julio
    1983
    In this groundbreaking essay, Julio Plaza provides the reader with an overview of what was at the time, the very recent “video text” technology featured in a special section of the seventeenth São Paulo Biennial, a section that Plaza curated. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111090

  • Arte em órbita
    Rosenberg, Harold
    1967
    In 1961, the magazine ARTnews sent critic Harold Rosenberg to São Paulo to cover the opening of the VI São Paulo Biennial, which had been postponed due to the sudden resignation of Brazilian President Jânio Quadros a few months earlier. In this [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111186

  • Arte popular do Peru : 14a. Bienal Internacional de Sao Paulo '77
    1977
    This is a poster for the Peruvian Folk Art exhibition at the XIV Bienal Internacional de São Paulo in 1977. The design includes only the title of the exhibition and an enlarged detail photograph of a Pucará Bull [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 857172

  • Arte popular peruano en Sao Paulo
    La Torre, Alfonso
    1977
    Alfonso La Torre interviews the photographer Eva Lewitus, who shares her opinions on the Peruvian folk art exhibition that was presented at the XIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1977. She thinks the exhibit did not reflect the full scope of this kind of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855899

  • Bienal : renovação crítica e riscos
    Zanini, Walter, 1925-
    1989
    Walter Zanini, curator of the 1981 and 1983 São Paulo Biennials, defends the critical role that curators play in mega-exhibitions like the São Paulo Biennial. He asserts that that role exceeds formulating the concepts that serve as the structure of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111346

  • Bienal e participação... do povo
    Pedrosa, Mário
    1967
    This commentary by Mário Pedrosa centers on the large audiences that admired and interacted with the works exhibited at the IX São Paulo Biennial (1969). He states that: “art has ceased to be that distant and humorless thing, that terribly [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111108

  • Bienal quando nasce é para todos
    Lemos, Fernando
    1951
    Fernando Lemos disagrees with most of the critics of the day when he asserts that the growth of the São Paulo Biennial—and of its Brazilian section in particular—should not be curtailed. Due to the large number of participants, “the Brazilian [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110908

  • Bienal, passarela de gênios
    Vieira, José Geraldo, 1897-1977
    1961
    In this brief article, critic José Geraldo Vieira analyzes how Brazilian art has been influenced by constant contact with foreign tendencies at the São Paulo Biennial. In his view, everything shown “wholesale” at the biennial—especially in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110907

  • Bienal: significação do novo
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    1959
    Lourival Gomes Machado evaluates the works exhibited at the V Bienal de São Paulo, where he was once again the artistic director. He identifies a radical shift in the approach of both the Brazilian and the international works; whereas they had [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110723

  • Bobonis en plano íntimo
    García Gutiérrez, Enrique
    1996
    The Puerto Rican critic Enrique García Gutiérrez reviews the exhibition, Asogues, that was held at the Galería Luigi Marrozzini from January through March 1996. The exhibition featured works by the Puerto Rican artist Ada Bobonis, including three [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 867135

  • Brasil (es)/Brazil(s)
    Herkenhoff, Paulo
    1997
    In his essay, Paulo Herkenhoff seeks to portray Brazil as though it were one country and several countries at the same time, presenting its art as though it were both a singular and a multiple phenomenon. The critic thinks of Brazil as just a point [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1075090

  • Cartas e telegramas de D. Yolanda
    Penteado, Yolanda, 1903-1983
    1951
    This is an account of Mrs. Yolanda Penteado’s travels to establish relationships with representatives of several European countries in order to secure their agreement to participate in the First Bienal de São Paulo (1951). The typewritten document [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110831

  • César Paternosto
    Paternosto, Cesar, 1931-
    1971
    César Paternosto’s response against the 1971 São Paulo Biennial. His emphatic response stresses: “…Simply NO to the Biennial [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 766155

  • Como é e como deveria ser a Bienal
    Bardi, P. M. (Pietro Maria), 1900-1999
    1955
    Pietro Maria Bardi lists four factors that should be considered as part of a complete overhaul that would make the Bienal de São Paulo comparable to the Biennale di Venezia: 1) Do not send an official invitation to the governments of the various [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111147

  • Conselho de Arte e Cultura
    Conselho de Arte e Cultura
    1977
    This was the official introduction to the Fourteenth São Paulo International Biennial, an exhibition that paid tribute with great fanfare to the founder, Francisco Matarazzo Sobrinho. As of the formation of a Conselho de Arte e Cultura (CAC), the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111110

  • Crítica sitiada, cá e lá
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    1961
    This text by art critic, professor, and journalist Lourival Gomes Machado takes stock of Brazilian art criticism after the II Congresso de Críticos held in 1961.  Gomes Machado was the coordinator of the section of that event dedicated to the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110725

  • Críticos de América Latina votan contra una bienal de Arte Latinoamericano
    Amaral, Aracy A., 1930-
    1981
    Brazilian historian and critic Aracy Amaral assesses the decision to bring to an end the Bienal Latinoamericana de São Paulo (BLSP)—a one-time event held in 1978 parallel to the traditional São Paulo Biennial. The decision was made after the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1079493

  • Críticos, abstracionismo e figurativismo
    Jean, Yvonne, 1908-1974
    1953
    Using her personal annotations written during a tour of the First São Paulo Biennial (1951) as a starting point, the author transcribes some of the opinions of art critics of diverse nationalities regarding the definitions of “abstraction” and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111155