ICAA Research Team: Fundación Mercantil, Caracas×
  • [Fabiola Sequera abre un capítulo desconocido...]
    Niño Araque, William
    1991
    In this text, curator William Niño Araque reflects on Fabiola Sequera’s sculpture on the occasion of the exhibition held at the Galería Astrid Paredes in Caracas in 1991. The curatorial essay proposes three approaches to a body of work that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1165647

  • [Fuera de ciertos círculos de iniciados y conocedores, la pintura de Josefa Sulbarán...]
    Erminy, Perán
    1987
    In this text, the critic Perán Erminy proposes a visual and symbolic analysis of the popular style of landscape painting practiced by Josefa Sulbarán, in recognition of her twenty years of creating art in Venezuela. Erminy divides his essay into [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1158137

  • [Gabriel Morera]
    Arroyo, Miguel, 1920-2004
    1968
    In his essay, the museum designer Miguel Arroyo examines the range of art created in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He reaches the conclusion that the arrival of photography, film, and television led painters to abandon traditional [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162743

  • [Gego es uno de los auténticos valores...]
    Chocrón, Isaac, 1930- 2011
    1967
    This text was written by Venezuelan playwright and essayist Isaac Chocrón (1930–2011) for the catalogue accompanying the Gego exhibition, Gego esculturas. 1957–1967, held at the Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango in Bogotá (1967). Chocrón places [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159035

  • [Gertrudis Goldschmidt, Gego, figura del arte contemporáneo ... = Gertrudis Goldschmidt, Gego, figura do arte contemporaneo...]
    Avellaneda de Luna, Mariela
    1996
    With this text, Mariela Avellaneda de Luna officially presents Gego at the twenty-third São Paulo Biennial. Avellaneda points out the importance of the line in Gego’s large structures, such as the versions of Reticulárea, emphasizing the way the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149565

  • [Hace medio siglo, en una heladería de Valencia...]
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    1985
    Critic Juan Calzadilla wrote this text on Venezuelan artist Braulio Salazar on the fiftieth anniversary of his first solo show. That exhibition, Calzadilla explains, took place at a moment when Salazar’s efforts as an artist and as an educator were [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1161987

  • [Haciendo un intento por recordar que causas me indujeron a pintar...]
    Luque, Ángel, 1927-
    1965
    In this essay, the Spanish artist Angel Luque—who lived in Venezuela from 1955 to 1967— analyzes the factors that led him to painting. He describes what the concept of “risk” means to him, as applied to both art and life in general. Luque [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1156779

  • [Hasta ahora lo que entre nosotros se había llamado …]
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    1965
    The critic Juan Calzadilla wrote this prologue for Borges. Las Jugadoras, the exhibition at the Galería del Techo [de la Ballena]. Calzadilla describes Jacobo Borges’ work as being representative of a new kind of painting that—while not entirely [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060684

  • [Hay ciertos rostros de la ciudad...]
    Pérez Perdomo, Francisco
    1963
    Francisco Pérez Perdomo wrote the prologue for Asfalto-Infierno, the book by Adriano González Léon (text) and Daniel González (photographs), published by El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68), the group to which these artists belonged. Pé [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060288

  • [Hay en la obra de Cornelis Zitman el poder...]
    Lorquin, Bertrand
    1988
    In this essay, French critic and curator Bertrand Lorquin analyzes the work of sculptor Cornelis Zitman. He discusses the range of influences on Zitman’s production, from classical Greek and Renaissance artists to Giacometti, Picasso, and Maillol, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1169299

  • [Hoy, cuando analizo mi trabajo de los últimos tres años...]
    Espinoza, Eugenio, 1950-
    1988
    This preface was written by the artist for the catalogue of his own exhibition Eugenio Espinoza: 1985–1988 at the Galería Tito Salas in Caracas (1988). Here the artist writes an analytical review of the ideas that govern the art he has produced in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101730

  • [Jesús Rafael Soto ...]
    Popper, Frank, 1918-
    1968
    The theoretician Frank Popper analyzes the Kinetic aspects of the artwork of Jesús Soto, whom he identifies by his repetition of both visual and plastic elements in one object to obtain vibration. Popper also notes that this reading of what is known [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1073597

  • [José Luis Cuevas realiza sus primeros dibujos ...]
    Banko, Catalina
    1985
    In a text on the drawings and prints of José Luis Cuevas written in 1985, the art historian Catalina Banko compares his work to that of the Mexican muralists in order to show the major differences between them. To accomplish this, the Venezuelan [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1156829

  • [La escultura - por no decir el arte de la estatua-...]
    Tapias, Anita
    1985
    This essay by the curator Ana Tapias is divided into two parts. In the first part Tapias rapidly reviews the history of sculpture in Venezuela, then describes what’s going on in the contemporary Abstract art scene. In the second part she discusses [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162950

  • [La gran virtud de Gego...]
    Lucena, Luis Fernando
    1968
    Luis Fernando Lucena reviews Gego’s lithographic works. The Colombian writer describes these works by Gego as atemporal and in a permanent state of activity, with no beginning or end. He also suggests that it is impossible and unnecessary to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159514

  • [La historia de las escuelas de arte...]
    Gego
    1964
    Gego—who was an art teacher as well as an artist—wrote “The History of Art Schools” by hand in Spanish in around 1964. In it, she claims that that history is parallel to the creative development of an individual and of his specific works. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159154

  • [La imagen de América que forjaron, directa o indirectamente,...]
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    1992
    Here, Roberto Guevara presents the objectives of the First Camille Pissarro Biennial (Centro Cultural Consolidado, Caracas, 1992). The event was organized to strengthen the ties between Venezuela and France as well as stimulate the development of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1166254

  • [La obra de Gego...]
    Figarella, Mariana, 1959- 1996
    1984
    Critic Mariana Figarella analyzes the series of Dibujos sin papel [Drawings Without Paper] that Gego, a Venezuelan artist of German origin, produced between 1976 and 1984. Figarella discusses the “ambiguity” of these works and the subsequent [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854672

  • [La obra de Martha Cabrujas constituye la experiencia...]
    Da Antonio, Francisco, 1930-
    1973
    describing her beginnings and her handling of the potter’s wheel and moves on to describe her turn toward modeling clay. He also mentions the short period in which she creates geometric work, to then return to “the material.” The critic reviews [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1163685

  • [Las influencias favorables o negativas que los otros...]
    Vigas, Oswaldo
    1966
    In this essay Oswaldo Vigas discusses his early days as a painter in Venezuela in the 1940s, recalling the first time he was awarded a prize, and the art movements that influenced his work. He also mentions his travels, studies, and companions. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1152501

  • [Letter] 1950 Marzo 31, Caracas [to] Alejandro Otero
    Boulton, Alfredo, 1908-1995
    1950
    In this letter, art critic Alfredo Boulton voices some dismay to his artist friend, Alejandro Otero. After having written generalizations on traditional western art and on the irruption of the abstract art movement, the critic adds a long postscript [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 850312

  • [Letter] [1948 Abril 10, París to a Alfredo Boulton]
    Otero, Alejandro, 1921-1990
    2001
    This letter by Venezuelan artist Alejandro Otero to his friend, the art critic Alfredo Boulton, is quite revealing. Written in Paris in 1948, in the letter the artist makes reference to his day-to-day activities as a scholarship student, and as a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 850255

  • [Letter] [1961 Noviembre 15, Caracas to Alejandro Otero]
    Boulton, Alfredo, 1908-1995
    2001
    In this letter, art critic Alfredo Boulton reveals to his friend, the artist Alejandro Otero, then in Paris, about his reservations with the new extra-pictorial [habitually not used] materials he had begun using after the Coloritmos series created by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 850274

  • [Letter] 1950 Abril 8, París [to] Alfredo Boulton
    Otero, Alejandro, 1921-1990
    1950
    This letter by Alejandro Otero is in response to the letter (March 31, 1950) sent by his friend, the art critic Alfredo Boulton, where he complained about the group of artists calling themselves Los Disidentes. Specifically, Boulton was opposed to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 850293

  • [Letter] 1969 December 23, New York [to] Rachel Conkright
    Catlin, Stanton L. (Stanton Loomis)
    1969
    This letter-report, dated December 23, 1969, was originally written in English by Stanton L. Catlin, an American curator and director of the Center for Inter-American Relations Art Gallery, New York, to Rachel Conkright, Gego’s gallerist in Caracas [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1107344

  • [Letter] 1969 September 17, Granada Hills, CA [to] Gego
    Weddle, Ruth
    1969
    This is a personal letter written to the Venezuelan artist originally from Germany, Gego (Gertrud Goldschmidt, 1912–1994), from her friend, Ruth Weddle. Weddle was an editor who was Gego’s classmate at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop in San [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150101

  • [Letter] 1970 January 10, New York [to] Stanton L. Catlin
    Moholy- Nagy, Sibyl, 1903-1971
    1970
    [This document is] a letter written in English by the architecture professor Sibyl Moholy-Nagy to Stanton L. Catlin, director of the art gallery at the Center for Inter-American Relations in New York, dated January 10, 1970. She writes to say that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149264

  • [Letter] 1970 January 26, New York [to] David Bronheim
    Rockefeller, David, 1915-
    1970
    This is a letter written by the American entrepreneur and patron, David Rockefeller, to David Bronheim, president of the Center for Inter-American Relations, New York, on January 26, 1970. The letter thanked Bronheim for the good time he had on the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150119

  • [Letter] 1970 January 5, Caracas, Venezuela [to] Todt
    Gego
    1970
    This letter, written in English by Gego (Gertrud Goldschmidt, 1912–1994), a Venezuelan artist of German origin, was sent to Stanton L. Catlin, director of the Center for Inter-American Relations Art Gallery, New York, in 1970; it addresses specific [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1107360

  • [Letter] 1970 January 7, New York
    Catlin, Stanton L. (Stanton Loomis)
    1970
    In this letter dated January 7, 1970, Stanton L. Catlin, an American curator and director of the Center for Inter-American Relations Art Gallery, New York, invites a limited number of people to a private viewing of a work, Reticulárea, by Gego; [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1107328

  • [Letter] 1972 July 21, Caracas, Venezuela [to] James Harithas
    Gego
    1972
    This letter written in English by Gego, a Venezuelan artist of German origin, is addressed to Mr. James Harithas, director of the Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York. Dated July 21, 1972, the letter states that despite her enthusiasm, Gego must [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148350

  • [Letter] 1974 July 18, Caracas, Venezuela [to] Mrs. Blumberg
    Gego
    1974
    This letter written by Gego in English is addressed to Mrs. Sandra Trop Blumberg, executive director of the Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York. In it, Gego acknowledges receipt of Blumberg’s letter, dated July 3, and informs her that she [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148329

  • [Letter] 1974, May 7, Syracuse, New York [to] Gego
    Catlin, Stanton L. (Stanton Loomis)
    1974
    In this letter written in English and dated May 7, 1974, Stanton L. Catlin informs Gego that he has been named a professor of art, and director of the galleries at Syracuse University, New York. He states that he will also be collaborating with the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159018

  • [Letter] 1982 December 17, Arbach, Germany [to] Gego
    Hönig, Peter
    1982
    This document is a handwritten letter in German to Gego from the German photographer Peter Hönig, dated December 17, 1982, which concerns the photographs of the Reticulárea (1982) that Gego installed in a room at the Alte Oper building in Frankfurt [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159401

  • [Letter] 1982 October 15, [Frankfurt] [to] Gego
    Thiel, Christian
    1982
    This document is a letter written to Gego in German by the architect, Christian Thiel, from Frankfurt on October 15, 1982. After a short introduction, Thiel talks about his nostalgia for Reticulárea, installed in the Alte Oper [Old Opera Building], [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149282

  • [Letter] 1983 September 16, Frankfurt [to] Gego
    Thiel, Christian
    1983
    This document is a letter written to Gego in German by the architect, Christian Thiel, from Frankfurt on September 16, 1983. Thiel tells Gego of the discovery he made while he was reading an essay entitled “Rhizome,” written by the French [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149300

  • [Los jóvenes pintores venezolanos que realizan su activa...]
    Liceo Fermín Toro (Caracas, Venezuela)
    1949
    The anonymous author of the prologue to this exhibition catalogue places emphasis on the need for the Taller Libre de Arte (TLA) to prepare high school students—especially those enrolled in the Liceo Fermín Toro—to become a source of aesthetic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101620

  • [Los nuevos conceptos y experiencias que se realizan en la actualidad...]
    Cruz-Diez, Carlos
    1960
    This is a text written by Carlos Cruz-Diez for his 1960 exhibition Fisicromías y Color Aditivo held in Caracas. Under the title “Un nuevo concepto del color,” the writer includes one paragraph from an essay by Fernando Álvarez Sabater “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 856961

  • [Los primeros testimonios sobre el Brasil surgieron en forma de grabados...]
    Silva, Alberto da Costa e, 1931-
    1968
    The text by Brazilian author Alberto Da Costa e Silva for the exhibition “9 grabadores del Brasil” [Nine Engravers of Brazil] (Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, 1968) presents an expansive view of the history and evolution of engraving in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1156704

  • [Moros es un joven escultor residente en Aragua]
    Ortiz Bravo, Aquiles
    1985
    The promoter Aquiles Ortiz Bravo states that José Jesús Moros is trying to give his sculpture a transcendent meaning in keeping with the standards of the classical school. He adds that regarding the different visual elements, the Venezuelan [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162759

  • [Muchos serán los que interpretarán nuestra actitud como manifestación de odios personales...]
    1950
    In this third issue of Los Disidentes [The Dissidents] (Paris, 1950), the authors reject the potential arguments against their movement; which only seek to distort the true intentions of the authors. They reaffirm the seriousness of their commitment [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813493

  • [No es TV, no es cine, no es happening...]
    D'Amico, Margarita
    1975
    Journalist Margarita D’Amico dedicates this text to a new art form: video. The author shows the versatility of this new medium as well as its ability to capture the diverse areas of human activity. The aspects she highlights include the possibility [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162599

  • [No me resulta fácil recordar...]
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    1980
    In this essay, Juan Calzadilla provides a chronological overview of the life and work of Venezuelan artist Maruja Rolando. He begins with her artistic training in the fifties, mentioning her most important teachers and influences, as well as the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1163637

  • [No puedo dejar de destacar la importancia de este encuentro...]
    Berni, Antonio, 1905-1981
    1978
    This is Antonio Berni’s critical review of Latin American art during the last ten years, in which he identifies other problems that, in his opinion, “are still ignored by the critics.” The Argentinean visual artist refers to categories and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815659

  • [No se alcanza la espontaneidad creativa...]
    Silva, Carlos
    1988
    In this essay, the critic Carlos Silva provides a general description of Luisa Richter’s work. He mentions her main influences, in particular German post-Expressionism and the German maestros Hans Fähnle, H. Dähn, Rudolf Müller and, especially, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162103

  • [Nosotros no vinimos a París a seguir cursos de diplomacia...]
    1950
    In this fifth and last issue of Los Disidentes [The Dissidents] (Paris, 1950) magazine, which states as its purpose to “severely” attack the cultural reality of Venezuela, which [the group] describes as “false,” and with the intention of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813555

  • [Nunca ha sido expuesta en Venezuela...]
    Hernández, Agueda
    1973
    In this essay on Marisol [Escobar], Venezuelan curator and gallery director Águeda Hernández analyzes her creative concept by drawing relationships between the works that (at that moment) were in Venezuela, in both public spaces and museums, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1163350

  • [Oswaldo Vigas ha reunido esta cuidadosa retrospectiva que abarca treinta años de su trabajo]
    Traba, Marta
    1973
    In Marta Traba’s criticism of the Venezuelan painter Oswaldo Vigas, she deems him one of the group of artists she calls “the remains” The critic uses that category to group Latin American artists who have remained faithful to their artistic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1106962

  • [Parsimoniosa, reflexiva, esta obra que no tiene más de tres años de diseñada...]
    1976
    This is Marta Traba’s critical review of the exhibition of silkscreen prints by Susy Iglicki at the Museo de Bellas Artes in Caracas. Traba discusses the Venezuelan artist’s use of space, color, planes, and volumes, while referring to her [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1106934

  • [Pocas veces se habrá registrado en Venezuela...]
    Ratto Ciarlo, José, 1904-1997
    1974
    In this catalogue text, critic and essayist José Ratto-Ciarlo praises César Rengifo for his multifaceted work in painting; Rengifo was not only a painter, but also a playwright, journalist, and political activist. Ratto-Ciarlo analyzes the profound [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101966