ICAA Research Team: CURARE, Espacio Crítico para las Artes, Mexico City×
  • ¡¡Asesinos!!
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    1924
    This article by Diego Rivera denounces the “reactionary” agents of Delahuertismo who were the true architects of the conspiracy to infiltrate Masonic lodges at the beginning of 1924 in order to murder the governor of Yucatan, Felipe Carrillo [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 763275

  • ¡¡Fíjate, Trabajador!!
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    1924
    This document is a didactic-political text directed toward the working class organized around identification of its enemies. These include the fake socialist parties (equated with the Italian fascists). And also the intellectuals unable to understand [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 763293

  • ¡Cuarenta y un maricones!
    1901
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, known as the Ball of the Forty-One, the poem describes the possible foundation of a mutual aid society in which a dance was mentioned: “El traje debía de ser [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778106

  • ¡En la guerra, arte de guerra!
    Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Dirección de Propaganda de Guerra (Cuba)
    1943
    The National War Propaganda Department, on behalf of Cuba’s Ministry of National Defense, published the script of the lecture to be delivered by David Alfaro Siqueiros on May 8, 1943, in Havana. The script provides a summary of his life from 1909 [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 751133

  • ¡Por un arte revolucionario independiente!
    1938
    With war looming in the background, this manifesto, dated July 25, 1938, and signed by André Breton and Diego Rivera, expresses a particular point of view regarding the concept of freedom of expression for the artist and the man of science—“the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 792914

  • ¡Que hable el diablo!: ¿La Bienal es falsa?... ¿es derroche de dinero?... ¿agente del ninguneo?
    Castillo, Fausto
    1958
    Fausto Castillo interviewed Mr. Miguel Salas Anzures who—when asked about the accusation that he was spending a great deal of money on the first Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado [Inter-American Biennial of Painting and Printmaking], [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758326

  • ¡Que viva Trotsky!
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    1986
    This was the headline of the supplement—dedicated to the muralist on the centenary of his birth—that published a document dated December 19, 1929 in which Diego Rivera explained “My Expulsion from the PCM.” The text discusses his reasons and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 754283

  • ¡Rivera y Siqueiros lo acaparan todo!
    Climent, Juan B.
    1952
    Juan B. Climent interviews Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, who leaves no doubt about his position regarding the figures of Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros in Mexican art. Lozano talks about the need to vindicate the native figure stemming from [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 776602

  • ¡Tamayo es un hipócrita! : dice Siqueiros en una entrevista exclusiva para Hoy sobre la Bienal
    Mendoza, María Luisa
    1958
    In this interview, David Alfaro Siqueiros expressed his views on the Biennial. He began by critiquing the paintings exhibited by the United States, and warned Latin American painters against imitating hybrid ideas that made no sense, such as Tachisme [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 768083

  • ¡Tamayo se rebela! : Rufino Tamayo, “Cuarto grande” de la pintura mexicana se subleva en un vibrante mensaje artístico
    Climent, Juan B.
    1951
    The art critic Juan Climent thought that Rufino Tamayo’s painting was caught in the crossfire of conflicting opinions. Some thought that his œuvre represented the decadent formalism of the School of Paris, but others saw it as the dawn of a new [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759012

  • ¿Arquitectura emocional?
    Goeritz, Mathias, 1915-1990
    1960
    In 1952, Daniel Mont invited Mathias Goeritz to construct “whatever he wanted.” Given such freedom, the sculptor developed the idea of Arquitectura Emocional [Emotional Architecture]: a structure that would contain the arts with the purpose of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 741755

  • ¿Artistas provocadores y delatores? : Los efectos de la intromisión corruptora del departamento de Estado Yanqui en la vida artística de nuestro país
    1954
    The exhibition at Perls Gallery in Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, presented Rufino Tamayo as one of the four great Mexican artists. His works were part of the great modernism and, unlike those of his colleagues, no Communist symbols could be found in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 785817

  • ¿Cómo quiere que responda a Tamayo, en broma, o en serio?
    Rodríguez, Antonio, 1909-
    1947
    José Clemente Orozco believed that opposition to political painting was nothing new in Mexico; it had been around since the start of the mural movement. Some painters tried to stamp out all forms of figurative or representative expression. When [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 755517

  • ¿Cómo respondieron los públicos de Europa?
    Gamboa, Fernando
    1952
    This interview consists of fourteen questions regarding the reception that the Mexican art exhibition experienced from the Parisian public. Fernando Gamboa believed that the event was a great opportunity for the Mexican people, and also was a great [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779913

  • ¿Cuál es el pintor más grande de México?
    Ortega, Febronio
    1922
    In the Survey Section, the journalist Ortega decided to go to the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria to ask the painters there the following question: Who is the greatest painter in Mexico? The caricaturist Ernesto García Cabral ironically responds that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 755251

  • ¿Cuál es la pintura revolucionaria?
    Tamayo, Rufino
    1955
    In artistic circles in those days, according to Rufino Tamayo, anything that was not purely Mexican was roundly rejected, and works that reflected our own experience and personal expression were lavishly praised. This had its positive aspects, but it [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759040

  • ¿El abandono de su tradicional plataforma ideológica servirá a la pintura mexicana?
    Rodríguez, Antonio, 1909-
    1948
    In this short article by Antonio Rodríguez, the art critic shows his support for an article published in the previous issue of the journal Espacios by the artist Roberto Berdecio, in defense of “social painting.” Rodríguez believes that “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799572

  • ¿Hay problema indígena en México?
    Gamio, Manuel, 1883-1960
    1921
    In “¿Hay problema indígena en México?” Mexican writer and anthropologist Manuel Gamio examines the “indigenous problem,” or the question of how to integrate indigenous Mexicans into Mexican society. Gamio argues that the government of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 737307

  • ¿México tendría hoy una escuela de pintura propia, de haber seguido la ruta de Tamayo?
    Rodríguez, Antonio, 1909-
    1948
    Antonio Rodríguez analyzed Rufino Tamayo’s work, basing his remarks on the retrospective of his paintings exhibited at the Palacio de Bellas Artes. According to the exhibition catalog, Tamayo’s greatest contribution was his handling of color. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758248

  • ¿Qué opina usted del estridentismo?
    Leblanc, Oscar
    1923
    Based on the criticisms that the emergence of Estridentismo gave rise to, Oscar Leblanc, a journalist of El Universal Ilustrado carries out a survey about the movement, interviewing several personalities. The responses are really extreme. The writer [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 737534

  • ¿Qué piensan los misioneros del INBA? : Rina Lazo y García Bustos en Oaxaca
    Tibol, Raquel
    1957
    Most of this short article consists of the words of the artist from Guatemala, Rina Lazo—a naturalized Mexican—from an interview with the critic Raquel Tibol. Lazo recalls her training and the reasons she came to Mexico in 1946. At that time, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 795102

  • ¿Son inmorales estas pinturas? Los murales del pintor González Camarena en el edificio Guardiola actualizan la debatida cuestión de la moral en el arte
    Rodríguez, Antonio
    1942
    The critic Antonio Rodríguez uses this article to defend the murals painted by Jorge González Camarena in the main hall of the Edificio Guardiola, in the center of Mexico City. The author believes that the short newspaper article calling for these [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 804294

  • "Gran-boa" asfixia a los escultores mexicanos
    1958
    This brief article, illustrated by a large caricature, uses a humorous tone to comment on the disputes generated by the declarations of sculptors, who were unable to reach an agreement. “Instead of joining forces to fight the little dictator who [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772048

  • "No tan furris como otras de a peloncha"
    González Mello, Renato
    2008
    José Clemente Orozco did not publish any more political caricatures after the 1913 Decena Trágica [Tragic Ten Days]. This paragraph discusses at length the late-nineteenth-century transition from the end of the traditional press to the efficiency [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 796146

  • "The Route of Friendship" : sculpture
    Goeritz, Mathias, 1915-1990
    1970
    Mathias Goeritz describes two projects proposed to the then-president of the organizing committee of the 19th Olympic Games, architect Pedro Ramírez Vázquez: the International Meeting of Sculptors and The Route of Friendship. The artist describes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 741733

  • “El Machete” ante la polémica de Cardoza y Aragón y Cabada
    1936
    The dispute begun by Luis Cardoza y Aragón against the frente único [single front] policy of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] culminated with this declaration in El Machete. The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779297

  • “Estéticamente reaccionarios” son los pintores modernos : Dice el pintor David Alfaro Siqueiros
    Rodríguez, Antonio, 1909-
    1947
    Antonio Rodríguez portrayed painter David Alfaro Siqueiros as an avant-garde artist because of his approach to using new pictorial materials. In this interview, Siqueiros declared that contemporary painters remained “impassive before the progress [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758048

  • “La Piedad” : un fresco de Rodríguez Lozano en la penitenciaría del D. F.
    Bergamín, José, 1895-1983
    1942
    In this article the Spanish writer José Bergamín analyzes the mural, La Piedad [Mercy] that Manuel Rodríguez Lozano painted at the Lecumberri prison in Mexico City. He finds aspects of Lozano’s work within the Hispanic heritage adopted by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 789210

  • [¿Quiénes levantaran el monumento a Posada?=Who will raise the monument to Posada?]
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    1930
    This issue contains more than 400 engravings by José Guadalupe Posada, with a preface by Diego Rivera, in which he redefines the engraver as a “worker,” “warrior of leaflets,” the “greatest artist” produced by the people, and the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 757821

  • [C'est avec la Mort de Maximilien...]
    Salmon, André
    1929
    André Salmon introduces Lola Cueto’s work by referring to certain moments that he considers important. He suggests that Edouard Manet’s painting, La Muerte de Maximiliano [The Death of Maximilian], was Mexico’s debut in the visual arts. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1104283

  • [Calaveras del Mausoleo nacional]
    1934
    This print by Leopoldo Méndez was used for the cover of the first issue of Frente a Frente [Face to Face], in which the inauguration of the Palacio de Bellas Artes was satirized as an act of cultural exclusion. At the bottom of the page, a policeman [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774365

  • [Comité Ejecutivo de la Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) to Joseph Freeman, National Secretary of the John Reed Club (JRC). Communique]
    1935
    This communiqué outlines the growth of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] in the last ten months, explaining the organizational structure and activities. It highlights the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 800989

  • [Digno es de notarse que mientras mas pura es la Raza...]
    Ramos Martínez, Alfredo
    1926
    This text underscores the originality, expression and strength of the works created at the Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre [Open-Air Schools of Painting], arguing that these qualities are the product of racial purity and that as mestizaje [racial [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825947

  • [El café de nadie]
    Alva de la Canal, Ramón
    1924
    This stylized painting portrays some of the members of the Estridentista movement in their meeting place: El Café de Nadie [No Man’s Café]. Manuel Maples Arce is in the upper center of the picture, flanked by both Germán List and Salvador [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799703

  • [El caso de Germán Cueto en la escultura contemporánea...]
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    1948
    In this essay, the painter Carlos Mérida emphasizes Germán Cueto’s capacity to work with different materials such as iron, tin, and plastics, by connecting them to a new aesthetic modality called “design.” For Mérida, design is the vital [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736834

  • [El conocimiento de la vanguardia internacional en México...]
    Schneider, Luis Mario
    1970
    Luis Mario Schneider carried out the first documented study on Etridentismo; he interviewed the members of the group and thoroughly examined the archives of this 1920s avant-garde movement. Although the group left some accounts to history, this was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 752823

  • [El expresionismo a partir de Kokoschka,...]
    Nelken, Margarita
    1964
    In this book, Margarita Nelken, a Spanish critic based in Mexico, discusses the development of Expressionism in Mexican art. She argues that Mexican Expressionism has a native origin that, with the passage of time, has been enriched by the different [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 748151

  • [El Museo Nacional de Artes Plasticas]
    Gamboa, Fernando
    1947
    This text, attributed to Fernando Gamboa, defines how Mexican Art is to be classified in the coming decades: Pre-Hispanic, colonial, nineteenth-century, popular, and contemporary art. His department’s fundamental goal was to create a Museo Diná [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 732919

  • [El siglo XIX estalla en una granada fantástica...]
    Moro, César, d. 1956
    1939
    In the introduction to this catalog, César Moro (a celebrated Peruvian poet and artist) alludes to the antecedents of Surrealism within the avant-garde movements of the beginning of the twentieth century. He also identifies the contact points that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 752617

  • [En la Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre de Guadalupe Hidalgo...]
    Revueltas, Fermín
    1926
    This text by Fermín Revueltas, the director of the Escuela al Aire Libre de Guadalupe Hidalgo [Open-Air School of Guadalupe Hidalgo], is very concise. He states that the school he directs teaches art methods so that works can be created to be both [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825937

  • [En presencia del fenómeno observado en las escuelas libres de pintura...]
    Puig Casauranc, José Manuel, 1888-1939
    1926
    This text presents the Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre [Open-Air Schools of Painting] and its creative production as evidence that Mexican children have a natural artistic disposition. It also associates this disposition with their indigenous blood [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825942

  • [Estoy harto]
    Goeritz, Mathias, 1915-1990
    1960
    Mathias Goeritz states that he is fed up with logic and reason; with functionalism, decoration, and individualism; with the fashion of the moment, with vanity, ambition and egocentrism; with the -isms and -ists, both figuration and abstraction. He is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 825113

  • [Hoja Popular Ilustrada]
    1938
    The Taller de Gráfica Popular (TGP) [People’s Graphic Workshop] explained its working plan for graphic propaganda in a flyer that specified the following: it could be incorporated into wall newspapers, mailed as if it were postal correspondence, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822757

  • [Introducción y nota a la edición]
    Schneider, Luis Mario
    1985
    This document is an anthology containing a collection of etridentista poems and manifestos. It includes an extensive bibliography. Luis Mario Schneider [L. M. Sch.] contextualizes their works within the cultural panorama of that time [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 737908

  • [La casa marcada con el número 000...]
    Castrejón, Eduardo A.
    1906
    This novel by Eduardo A. Castrejón is based on the Baile de los 41 [The Dance of the 41], a notorious raid that took place in Mexico City in which 42 homosexual men were arrested. It tells the tale of a gathering hosted by a couple, Mimi and Ninón, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779575

  • [La pintura, en su estado actual,...]
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    1953
    Carlos Mérida sets forth eleven tenets on the development of painting in relation to the integration of the arts; these function both as a manifesto and as an introduction to the catalog. For the artist, functional painting is equivalent to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733691

  • [La Sociedad de Arte Moderno ha sido fundada con el fin de contribuir al desarrollo de la cultura...]
    Sociedad de arte moderno (México, D. F.)
    1944
    During the presentation of the catalog for the first exhibition by the Sociedad de Arte Moderno it is established that Mexico must become “one of the most important cultural centers of the world, since its great past and vigorous present compel it [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 752636

  • [La teoria de nuestra labor docente puede muy bien fundarse...]
    Díaz de León, Francisco
    1926
    This essay, written by Francisco Díaz de León, director of the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre [Open-Air Schools of Painting] in Tlalpan, explains that the Schools favor an aesthetic education and individual expression over technical education. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 826063

  • [Letter] a Edward Weston
    Gómez Robelo, Ricardo, 1884-1924
    1922
    The letter from Ricardo Gómez Robelo to Edward Weston is an emotional letter thanking Weston for the gift of some photographs, but, above all, he is grateful for Weston’s friendship. Robelo acknowledges that they [the group of friends around [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 806783

  • [Letter] [ca.1952]
    Gamboa, Fernando
    1952
    In this letter, Fernando Gamboa tells José (his last name is illegible) that the exhibition has been received positively. According to Gamboa there are those who have discovered an authentic pictorial path in Mexican painting, a possible escape from [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779926