ICAA Researcher: Ricardo Kusunoki×
  • Carta analítica al pintor Bill Caro
    Harth Terré, Emilio,1899-1983
    1973
    In this letter to painter Bill Caro, Emilio Harth-Terré asserts that the views of the neighborhoods of Lima Caro painted constitute “artistic expression” that goes beyond any attempt at social protest. The painter formulates, in Harth-Terré’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293393

  • Cartas al Director
    Szyszlo, Fernando de
    1956
    Fernando de Szyszlo sent this open letter to the editor of Cultura Peruana magazine in response to the article by journalist Jesús Manual Orbegozo that was published in this same magazine (Lima, December 1955). Szyszlo denied the declarations [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1227064

  • Comprobando netamente nuestro juicio y los de nuestros artistas , la Escuela de Bellas Artes, en su exposición de clausura, ha puesto de manifiesto su fracaso
    More Barrionuevo, Ernesto, 1897-1980
    1936
    Article written by Ernesto More, signed with the pseudonym Jerome, in which he criticizes the direction adopted by the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (ENBA), based in Lima, Peru. The author affirms that ENBA was created by an oligarchic government [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143228

  • Comunicado del IAC sobre el homenaje al pintor Sérvulo
    Instituto de Arte Contemporáneo (Lima, Perú)
    1961
    This is the communiqué issued by the Instituto de Arte Contemporáneo (IAC) [Institute of Contemporary Art] in Lima on the subject of the disagreement between the writer Juan Ríos and the art critic Juan Acha about the opinions expressed by Acha in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151132

  • Concierto de figuras
    Peña Barrenechea, Ricardo, 1896 - 1939
    1937
    Well-known avant-garde author Ricardo Peña recounts the cosmopolitan education of Ricardo Grau, whom he describes as a “concertmaster of international figures.” In his paintings, he notes a tonal atmosphere that is austere and excessive. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146740

  • Conscripción peruana de la pintura
    Acha, Juan, 1916-1995
    1958
    In this article signed “J. Nahuaca”—the anagram he used as an alias—critic Juan Acha addresses the relationship between nationalism and painting in Peru. He points out “the pressure” that nationalist concerns, which he considers “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138109

  • Consideraciones estéticas : Szyszlo en el I. A. C.
    Acha, Juan, 1916-1995
    1963
    Juan Acha discusses the exhibition of Fernando de Szyszlo’s series of paintings inspired by the indigenous poem “Apu Inca Atawallpaman,” an event that was organized by the Instituto de Arte Contemporáneo (IAC) in Lima. Acha finds the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1292805

  • Consideraciones sobre la pintura peruana
    Pereira, Raúl María, 1916-2007
    1939
    In this text, Raúl María Pereira reflects on the history of painting in Peru, affirming that the Incan “genius in form and color” lived on despite the Spanish conquest, not as a parallel or marginal entity, but as a force that acted on “the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293103

  • Contra la arquitectura "nudista": impresiones de la Exposición de París, 1937
    Jochamowitz, Alberto, 1881-1974
    1939
    In this periodical article on the Parisian International Exposition [of Art and Technology in Modern Life] in 1937, the engineer Alberto Jochamowitz questions the “nudism” found in the modern styled architecture. In his opinion, the pavilions of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143760

  • Cristina Gálvez opina que sí hay pintores en el Perú: citó a cuatro : "Hay que ser muy intelectual para ser abstracto" dijo y añadió luego "Szyszlo no es intelectual"
    Gálvez, Cristina
    1951
    In response to de Szyszlo’s controversial statement “there are no painters in Peru,” sculptor Cristina Gálvez mentions four whom she considers excellent: Juan Manuel Ugarte Eléspuru, Ricardo Grau, Sérvulo Gutiérrez, and Julia Codesido. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150897

  • Crónica de arte : I Salón de Arte Abstracto
    Moll, Eduardo, 1929-
    1958
    Commentary by painter and art critic Eduardo Moll on the I Salón de Arte Abstracto held in Lima (January 1958), which he participated in and helped organize. Moll emphasizes the large number of participating artists and artworks, stating that this [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137359

  • Cuatro edades de la pintura
    Goyburu, Emilio
    1951
    In this essay, Emilio Goyburu divides Western painting into periods on the basis of its “aesthetic facet.” He defines four “ages” that he envisions as a progression. In its “primitive” age—or genesis—painting acted as a “graphic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150294

  • Cuidado con la pintura : el arte por el arte abstracto : comentario al premio “Manuel Moncloa y Ordóñez
    Valle, Alejandro Romualdo, 1926-2008
    1955
    Alejandro Romualdo Valle critiques the III Salón de Pintura Manual Moncloa which, in his judgment, posits “abstract art as a complete substitute for art,” arguing that abstraction divides man from art, thus debilitating the latter. [He states] [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1227101

  • De arte
    Szyszlo, Fernando de
    1951
    In this open letter from Fernando de Szyszlo to El Comercio newspaper, the artist responds to the remarks published on its pages by critic Carlos Raygada (Lima, May 29, 1951) regarding de Szyszlo’s exhibition of abstract paintings at the Asociació [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150755

  • De arte : exposición Szyszlo
    Raygada, Carlos, 1898-1953
    1951
    In this text, critic Carlos Raygada comments on the show of abstract paintings by fellow Peruvian Fernando de Szyszlo held at the Sociedad de Arquitectos del Perú in Lima in May 1951. While Raygada praises the works’ “total commitment to the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150738

  • De arte : Jean Dewasne en la Galería de Lima
    Pérez Luna, Edgardo, 1928-1984
    1954
    The critic and playwright Edgardo Pérez Luna reviews the exhibition of works by the French artist Jean Dewasne presented at the Galería de Lima in October 1954. According to the reviewer, in Dewasne’s works, which are not at all figurative, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859484

  • De arte : la exposición de María Izquierdo
    1944
    This is a review of the exhibition of work by María Izquierdo at the ICPN (Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano) in Lima. “Tiziano” [Titian] describes her exhibition as “an interesting spiritual message from the Aztec nation and a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146668

  • De arte : la muestra de óleos de pintores italianos contemporáneos en la Galería de Lima
    Flórez Estrada, Antonio
    1954
    In this otherwise unflattering review of the exhibition of postwar Italian paintings at the Galería de Lima in May 1954, Antonio Flórez Estrada (alias “Tonón”) has one positive, albeit ironic, comment: he applauds the gallery for its unselfish [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 858745

  • De arte : se efectuó ayer la conferencia del pintor mexicano Siqueiros
    1943
    This is a review of the lecture given by David Alfaro Siqueiros—“La pintura mexicana moderna y el arte para la victoria”—at the ENBA (Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes) in Lima. It was billed as an explanation of the “true nature of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143260

  • Definición del arte último
    Pérez Reinoso, Ramiro
    1924
    The author establishes a contrast between the bourgeois “sincerity of heart” and the “sincerity of the spirit” that characterizes the avant-garde. Ramiro Pérez Reinoso believes that this concept of the heart has been plagued by a “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150787

  • Desde París : Autopsia del suprerrealismo
    Vallejo, César, 1892-1938
    1930
    In this text, eminent Latin American avant-garde poet César Vallejo asserts that “among the symptoms of the final decline of the capitalist intelligentsia is the vice of coterie.” He argues that the crises of economic imperialism are reflected [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293573

  • Dice Fernando Szyszlo que no hay pintores en el Perú ni América : el joven pintor peruano declara sentir su pintura y la de los demás pero no puede explicarla
    1951
    This text contains the polemic statements that Fernando de Szyszlo made on the occasion of his exhibition of abstract paintings held at the Asociación de Arquitectos del Perú in Lima in May 1951. He starts off by provocatively asserting that “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137793

  • Dieciseis años que la llamada Escuela de Bellas Artes, hace como que trabaja, y se consume estérilmente con el dinero del Fisco sin rendir ningún resultado : Como se asfixia el arte
    More Barrionuevo, Ernesto, 1897-1980
    1935
    In this essay, the author states that the ENBA (Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes) was created by an oligarchic government that maintained academic instruction as an ornamental necessity, and that its principal purpose and contribution was to create [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143210

  • Diferenciaciones estéticas
    Espinosa Saldaña, Antonino, 1888-1969
    1934
    The author, Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, makes aesthetic differentiations among “Art Deco” style plans, which were then innovative in the Peruvian context, in opposition to the prevailing indigenous art trend. He argues that Expressionism is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143805

  • Dos notas sobre Szyszlo / Guido Strazza
    Pérez Barreto, Samuel (1921-2003)
    1949
    This page from the culture magazine Espacio reproduces the reviews offered by artist Guido Strazza and critic Samuel Pérez Barreto regarding the second individual show of Fernando de Szyszlo at the Galería de Lima (June 1949). Strazza begins his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151228

  • Dudas y creencias sobre el arte contemporáneo
    Mejía, Jorge
    1950
    This open letter from journalist Jorge Mejía to architect Luis Miró Quesada Garland indicates, to some extent, the terms in which abstract art was questioned when it first emerged in Peru. Mejía ventures a classification of forms of artistic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138852

  • Dudas y creencias sobre el arte contemporáneo
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1950
    In this text, Luis Miró Quesada Garland responds to the letter from journalist Jorge Mejía published in El Comercio newspaper (Lima, August 20, 1950). Miró Quesada Garland rejects degree of representation as basis for artistic classification, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138869

  • Ecos artísticos
    Raygada, Carlos, 1898-1953
    1934
    In this text, critic Carlos Raygada remarks on the Antonino Espinosa Saldaña exhibition at the Asociación Entre Nous in Lima. He praises the “enduring aesthetic result” of what he deems “a perfect fit between theme and procedure.” He warns [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143790

  • El arte abstracto y la crítica : especial para La Industria
    Lora Risco, Alejandro
    1952
    In response to Julio Alfonso Hernández’s negative comments about Alejandro Lora Risco’s exhibition of abstract drawings (published in El Tiempo, Chiclayo, Peru, October 31, 1952), the artist wrote this essay in which he discusses the link [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143651

  • El arte abstracto y nuestra época
    Veraz, Giuseppe
    1951
    In Alejandro Lora Risco’s opinion the exhibition of contemporary Italian paintings deserves to be discussed in extremely positive terms because it provides the residents of Lima with an opportunity to get to know—and therefore promote—non- [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 858704

  • El arte peruano de vanguardia: la exposición de Goyburu
    Lora, Juan José, 1902-1961
    1925
    The author describes the painter Emilio Goyburu as a “born revolutionary” whose originality was immune to “any academic approach, old or new.” According to Juan José Lora, Goyburu’s work is a “cinematic spectacle of awareness,” in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146775

  • El color en las diversas artes
    Goyburu, Emilio
    1954
    This article by painter Emilio Goyburu contributes to debates on the meaning of abstraction, specifically in terms of the important role that color plays in the arts. Nature, in Goyburu’s view, strikes us by means of color and, as a result, all art [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859948

  • El crítica en América
    Bercowitz, Marc
    1955
    In this article, Brazilian critic Marc Bercowitz reflects on the role of art criticism in Latin America, considering that a new group of young international-quality artists has emerged in Peru. Bercowitz perceives their understandable discontent at [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137952

  • El debate sobre pintura: carta del Sr. Juan Ríos R.
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    1951
    In his response to the article published by the Agrupación Espacio, writer and critic Juan Ríos asserts that there are two positions in art today: “art for art’s sake” and socially committed art. He considers abstraction the extreme of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150912

  • El éxito de un artista peruano en Europa : Exposición de Cásar [sic] Moro, en Bruselas
    Miomandre, Francis de, 1880-1959
    1926
    In this article, the French writer Francis de Miomandre notes that Europeans are largely unaware of the exuberance of current Latin American art, as exemplified by the group exhibition of works by painters from the region: Santos Balmori, Jaime [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146824

  • El mural de Núñez Ureta : un canto al esfuerzo del hombre
    Pérez Luna, Edgardo, 1928-1984
    1954
    Here, Edgardo Pérez Luna praises the mural by Teodoro Núñez Ureta executed in the building that housed Peru’s Treasury Department. The writer argues that the allegories created by the painter in the mural elude the conventions of the genre and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1227007

  • El nuevo humanismo de David Alfaro Siqueiros
    Valcárcel, Gustavo, 1921-
    1951
    This article by Gustavo Valcárcel reports on the award that David Alfaro Siqueiros received at the XXV Biennale di Venezia held in 1950. It was, in the author’s view, only due to “sentimental French chauvinism” that Henri Matisse received [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138834

  • El Perú y la cultura : sentido y expresión de las formas
    Pérez Barreto, Samuel (1921-2003)
    1950
    This article signed S. P. B. (Samuel Pérez Barreto) forms part of the “El Perú y la cultura” column published in the Lima-based newspaper La Prensa in 1950. According to the author, a return to the pre-Hispanic essence is the only way to create [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138491

  • El primer Salón Municipal
    Ríos Rey, Juan, 1914-1991
    1948
    Juan Ríos discusses the I Salón Municipal de Lima, which in his opinion, was a failure because most Peruvian artists decided to boycott the event due to widespread mistrust of the jury, which was made up of “distinguished civil servants or [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1289952

  • El sentido del arte americano
    Pérez Reinoso, Ramiro
    1926
    This article by Ramiro Pérez Reinoso was written in response to a piece by Alberto Gerchunoff published in the Buenos Aires daily newspaper, La Nación (January 31, 1926). The writer reviews the opinion of the Russian/Argentine intellectual, who [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125800

  • El sentido del ritmo en el arte de Espinosa Saldaña
    1934
    In this article, F. H. Dursself (probably a pseudonym) reviews the exhibition of work by Antonino Espinosa Saldaña at the Asociación Entre Nous (Lima). As the author examines the work, he notices a pronounced sense of rhythm. He does not, however, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143775

  • Elogio en forma de fusta
    Miranda Nieto, Froylan
    1939
    In this article, Froylán Miranda Nieto argues that Ricardo Grau’s painting “contributes to Peru by wholeheartedly supporting avant-garde art.” He asserts that, because “neither Indianist nor Europeanizing,” the artist has a special place [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1144173

  • En blanca y negra
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1955
    The author, Luis Miró Quesada, laments the absence of figurative artists [at the III Salón Moncloa], although he particularly values non-figurative art. He highlights the “fine and delicate pictorial qualities” of the winner of the III Salón [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859754

  • En blanca y negra
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1955
    Continuing his debate with Sebastián Salazar Bondy (a defender of art with social implications), Luis Miró Quesada Garland used this specific weekly column to argue in favor of Abstract art. His starting point is an article recently published by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 860011

  • En blanca y negra
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1955
    To the writer, referring to recent exhibitions of realistic painting in Lima, art criticism may not be subordinated to “any predetermined ideology or taste.” As an example of a country where this is routine, Garland points to the Soviet Union, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 865218

  • En blanca y negra
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1955
    The writer Luis Miró Quesada Garland considers it wrong to brand any painting as either “Neo-Realist” or “Social Realist” based on a subjective interpretation of reality, with idealized figures and/or deformation as (a) technique(s). The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150360

  • En blanca y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1954
    In this article, Luis Miró Quesada notes that Lima art critics were unanimously agreed on the importance of Jean Dewasne’s exhibition of paintings, despite the local art world’s animosity toward abstract art. Quesada rejects claims that this [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859589

  • En blanca y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1955
    The writer Luis Miró Quesada Garland explains why—in spite of being a known defender of Abstract art—he supported a figurative painting by Alfredo Ruiz Rosas for the first prize at the Second Salón Moncloa. His vote was based on strictly [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859805

  • En blanca y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1955
    While Garland points out administrative and economic problems that beset art competitions in Peru, his emphasis is on the art standards that must remain important after all. This column alludes to comments written by the poet Alejandro Romualdo Valle [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859826

  • En blanca y negra...
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    1954
    Luis Miró Quesada Garland acknowledges that the mural La construcción del Perú, by Teodoro Nuñez Ureta, entails a commendable attempt to integrate the visual arts with architecture in public buildings. However, he lodges the criticism that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 865020