ICAA Researcher: María C. Gaztambide; Harper Montgomery, collaborator×
  • ¿Qué quiere decir un Arte Americano?
    Traba, Marta
    In this text, Marta Traba argues that there is not really a unified [Latin] American aesthetic in the visual arts and calls for an honest investigation of the question of such an aesthetic approach, even at the risk of affirming that no common spirit [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 839092

  • [Extracts from 7th Annual Message of James Monroe, 5th President of the United States, Dated December 2, 1823]
    In this 1823 speech, President James Monroe announces a new agreement that forbids European nations from invading countries in the Western Hemisphere. He begins by recounting that the agreement has been negotiated through the Russian government, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055512

  • Analysis [The Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field of Art]
    Department of State (Washington, DC)
    This text documents the proceedings of the first Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field of Art, which was held in three sections: an analysis of the conference proceedings; the minutes from two days of sessions; and finally the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 837785

  • Ariel
    Rodó, José Enrique, 1871-1917
    In this text, José Enrique Rodó outlines his vision for a future Latin American civilization based on the pursuit of idealism. He stages this description as a lecture being delivered by an elderly teacher named Prospero to his young students. Rod [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055578

  • Art and Identity: Hispanics in the United States
    Paz, Octavio
    In this text, Octavio Paz contemplates the characteristics of “Hispanic” art in the United States. In a section entitled “Names and Constitutions,” he begins by describing what he argues is an archetype of all societies: the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065195

  • Arte Latino Americano actual
    Traba, Marta
    In this book, Marta Traba examines how the growing influence of art of the United States has shaped the art of Latin America during the 1950s and ‘60s, and how Latin American artists have both succumbed and resisted the effects of this influence. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 833707

  • Beyond ‘The Fantastic’: Framing Identity in US Exhibitions of Latin American Art
    Ramírez, Mari Carmen, 1955-
    Mari Carmen Ramírez argues that exhibitions of Latin American and Latino art in the United States during the 1980s have promoted false, colonial representations of these cultures by championing the paradigm of this art as the “fantastic other.” [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065386

  • Carlos Mérida
    Salmon, André
    In this text, André Salmon considers the paintings of the young Guatemalan artist, Carlos Mérida, and their appeal to Parisian audiences, while also expressing nationalist sentiments specific to Guatemala. Salmon begins by recounting how young [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832600

  • Cartas de Martí
    Martí, José, 1853-1895
    In this letter, José Martí considers a recent exhibition of watercolors he saw in New York and what it means regarding the state of art in the United States. He begins by recalling how disappointing he found an exhibition of painting he had seen in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 839794

  • Comments on the Article by Damián Bayón
    Romero Brest, Jorge
    In this text, Jorge Romero Brest responds to an article by Damián Bayón about what qualities make art produced by Latin American artists Latin American, and to four related questions about the nature of Latin American art which were sent to him by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1061762

  • Contemporary Regional Schools in Latin America
    Morley, Grace, 1900-1985
    In this text, Grace L. McCann Morley reviews recent developments in Latin American art, and makes a number of suggestions about how the appreciation of Latin American art can be furthered in the United States. McCann Morley begins by reminding us of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 833729

  • El asunto
    Vasconcelos, José
    In two chapters from his book Indología, José Vasconcelos outlines his concept of a culturally and politically unified Latin America, discussing how Latin America’s internal conflicts and its disagreements with the United States could be resolved [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832563

  • El empoderamiento de lo local
    Buntinx, Gustavo
    In this lecture, Gustavo Buntinx looks to convince his listeners that the current idea of “Latin American art” is an imperialist construct, and argues that the only solution is for them to reinvent it in its entirety. He begins by declaring that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065640

  • El presagio de América
    Reyes, Alfonso, 1889-1959
    In these three extracts from the first chapter of his book Última Tule, Alfonso Reyes considers the history of conquest and how it has fostered mythic notions of the Americas. In the text “Colón y Américo Vespucio,” he corrects the historical [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 839023

  • Etsedrón : Respuesta a Aracy A. Amaral = Comments on the article by Aracy A. Amaral
    Acha, Juan, 1916-1995
    In this text, Juan Acha responds to Aracy A. Amaral’s article arguing that the installation entitled Etsedrón, which appeared at the 1975 (XIII) São Paulo Biennial (October 17-December 14), constituted a promising new direction for Latin [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065118

  • Etsedrón o la carencia de interés libidinoso por la realidad
    Torrens, María Luisa
    In this text, María Luisa Torrens responds to Aracy Amaral’s article arguing that the installation entitled Etsedrón, which appeared at the 1975 (XIII) São Paulo Biennial, constituted a promising new direction for Latin American art. Torrens [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065137

  • Etsedrón: una forma de violencia
    Amaral, Aracy A., 1930-
    In this text, Aracy Amaral considers the strong negative responses provoked by a work entitled Etsedrón in the 1975 (XIII) São Paulo Biennial. She argues that this work provoked such responses because of its visceral power and because it is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065099

  • Foreword
    Barr, Alfred Hamilton, 1902-1981
    In this text, Alfred H. Barr, Jr. introduces the catalog of the collection of Latin American art of the Museum of Modern Art with remarks reviewing the history of the museum’s involvement with Latin American art and recent efforts to expand its [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 838005

  • Foreword
    In this text, Frederic Jameson introduces the English translation of a collection of Roberto Fernández Retamar’s essays published under the title Caliban. Jameson, in his discussion of Retamar’s work, addresses three main themes. First he [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 840404

  • From Latin American Art to Art from Latin America
    Mosquera, Gerardo
    Gerardo Mosquera considers the usefulness of the idea of Latin American art, ultimately taking a firm position against it as it has been understood up to now. He begins by describing Latin American culture’s “neurosis of identity” as the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065622

  • Guardias de la pluma
    Reyes, Alfonso, 1889-1959
    Alfonso Reyes wrote this letter to Waldo Frank in New York with the purpose of sending him a clipping (or perhaps a transcription) of a text Reyes had published in an Argentine newspaper about his friendship with Frank on the occasion of Frank’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1054203

  • Hispanoamericanismo y panamericanismo
    Vasconcelos, José
    In this text, José Vasconcelos describes how since the mid-nineteenth-century forces of “panamericanismo” have generally caused Mexico and Hispanic America to incrementally suffer the loss of cultural and economic independence. His argument [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832583

  • Homogenizing Hispanic Art
    Goldman, Shifra M., 1926-
    In this text, Shifra Goldman examines the problematic homogenization of the idea of “Hispanic” art and culture that was promoted by the exhibition Hispanic Art in the United States: Thirty Contemporary Painters and Sculptors organized by The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065232

  • In reply to a question: ‘When will the Art of Latin America become Latin American Art?'
    Bayón, Damián
    In this text, Damián Bayón considers the question: What qualities make art produced by Latin American artists Latin American? He begins by declaring that the art of Latin America becomes Latin American when an artist—because of his or her [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1061734

  • Indagación : ¿qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Torres Bodet, Jaime
    In this text, Jaime Torres Bodet responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” Torres Bodet notes the anxiety created by this question and warns of the dangers of defining [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832061

  • Indagación: ¿Qué debe ser el arte americano?
    Boti, Regino E.
    In this text, Regino E. Boti responds to the question that the editors of revista de avance posed to their readers: “What should American art be?” He specifically addresses each of the four sub-questions grouped under this larger question. In [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832100

  • Introduction
    Messer, Thomas M.
    In this text, Thomas Messer explains the logic behind how he selected the works for his exhibition The Emergent Decade: Latin American Painters and Painting in the 1960s. He also considers the questions that the exhibition raises about how [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1061823

  • Introduction
    Catlin, Stanton L. (Stanton Loomis); Grieder, Terence
    Stanton Loomis Catlin and Terence Grieder introduce their exhibition Art of Latin America since Independence. They begin by arguing that U.S. audiences should naturally find this art of interest because it was produced by fellow “Americans,” and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1061840

  • Introduction
    Cancel, Luis R.
    In this introduction, Luis Cancel explains the logic behind how he and his colleagues organized the exhibition The Latin American Spirit: Art and Artists in the United States, 1920-1970. He also explains, at length, the curatorial team’s larger [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065293

  • Introduction
    Day, Holliday T.; Sturges, Hollister
    In this introduction, Holliday T. Day and Hollister Sturges explain how the theme of “the fantastic” underlies the art of the twenty-nine artists included in the exhibition The Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987. In explaining their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065330

  • Introduction to an exhibition
    Rasmussen, Waldo
    Waldo Rasmussen introduces the exhibition, Latin American Artists of the Twentieth Century, with the history of participation by The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in the promotion of Latin American art. Rasmussen refers to the important role played by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065350

  • La multipatria latinoamericana
    Torres Caicedo, José María
    In these three texts, Torres-Caicedo considers how Latin American states should organize themselves into some kind of larger, governing body. In the first, he argues in favor of a Confederation of Latin American states as opposed to a Federation. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1052895

  • La personalidad puertorriqueña en el Estado Libre Asociado
    Muñoz Marín, Luis, 1898-1980
    In this speech, Luis Muñoz Marín calls on his audience of the Association of Teachers to take on the promotion of Puerto Rican culture as their chief responsibility. He begins by explaining that by Puerto Rican culture he does not mean specialized [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055544

  • La unidad latinoamericana
    Casimir, Jean
    In this text, Jean Casimir considers what unifies Latin American countries, ultimately arguing that they should seek a sense of unified purpose in resistance to the dominance of the United States. He begins by asking if the countries south of the “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 840539

  • La visión totalizadora : ensayo de caracterización de una plástica
    Bayón, Damián
    In this text, Damián Bayón considers what kinds of “characteristic forms” are visible in American art across historical periods encompassing pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern art and architecture. He conducts his inquiry [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 833814

  • Latin American exhibition of fine art
    In this 1940 catalogue, which is organized according to country, short descriptive texts precede checklists of the works included in the exhibition. The following countries are represented: Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 749636

  • Latin American Painting Comes into its Own
    Smith, Robert
    In this text, Robert C. Smith compares the great developments in Latin American painting since the 1920s with the mediocrity of Latin American art during the colonial period and nineteenth-century. In the first third of his text, Smith criticized [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 838021

  • Le Mexique Ancien et Moderne
    Chevalier, Michel
    In this selection from Michel Chevalier’s text Le Mexique Ancien et Moderne (1863), the author argues that France’s occupation of Spain, Mexico, and other Latin countries is in the best interest of all Catholic nations. Describing France as both [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 839365

  • Lección 132. El hombre americano y el arte de América
    Torres-García, Joaquín
    In this text, Joaquín Torres-García theorizes about a vision for the future of American art. He begins by arguing that American art is deeply flawed because its forms are used only to depict regional themes. Torres-García explains that his theory [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832022

  • Looking at a Gift Horse in the Mouth
    Goldman, Shifra M., 1926-
    In this text, Shifra Goldman argues that the “boom” in interest in Latin American art that occurred in the United States during the 1980s was largely motivated by political and economic interests. According to her, events and phenomena that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065368

  • Mi opinión sobre la exposición de artistas norteamericanos : contribución
    Torres-García, Joaquín
    In this lecture delivered on September 5, 1941, in Montevideo, Joaquín Torres-García examines a recent exhibition of North American (United States) artists, asking what this work tells us about the “great problem” of the art of “our” [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 833512

  • Minorities and Fine-Arts Museums in the United States
    Marzio, Peter C.
    Peter Marzio reflects on the experience of organizing and presenting the exhibition Hispanic Art in the United States: Thirty Contemporary Painters from his perspective as the director of the organizing museum. Marzio tells us he wants to make “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065274

  • Mixing
    Lucy Lippard recounts a history of art in the United States during the 1970s and ‘80s centered on cultural mixing. She begins by attesting to the failure of the idea of the “melting pot” in the United States. Instead, she argues that Western [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065534

  • Palabras pronunciadas en la comida de bienvenida en Buenos Aires, después de los discursos de Alfredo Colomo (Presidente del Instituto Cultural Argentino-Norteamericano) y Leopoldo Lugones (Presidente de la asociación de Escritores Argentinos)
    Frank, Waldo David, 1889-1967
    In this speech, Waldo Frank explains how he envisions a future in which the United States and Latin America become a spiritually and aesthetically unified America. Frank begins by declaring his intention to speak the truth about his country (the U.S [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1054178

  • Parcas y euménides de México
    Picón-Salas, Mariano, 1901-1965
    In this text, Mariano Picón-Salas describes how a series of murals by José Clemente Orozco presents a powerful myth about Mexican culture. Picón-Salas begins by praising Orozco as among the most significant artists of his era, and by tracing the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 833435

  • Polémica : Autoctonismo y Europeismo : réplica a Franz Tamayo
    Casanovas, Martí, 1894-1966
    In this text, Martí Casanovas responds to a letter by Franz Tamayo considering the question of what direction the development of Indio-American culture should take. Distinguishing his philosophy from Tamayo’s, Casanovas explains that he believes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 839776

  • Preface and Acknowledgements
    Livingstone, Jane; Beardsley, John
    In this preface and acknowledgements, John Beardsley and Jane Livingston explain what motivated them to prepare Hispanic Art in the United States: Thirty Contemporary Painters and Sculptors, the process by which the exhibition was formulated, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065215

  • Presentación
    Mosquera, Gerardo
    In this text, Gerardo Mosquera introduces the exhibition Ante América [Facing the Americas] with an essay describing the common social, political and economic framework that has fostered the art of what he calls “el Sur” or “Nuestra América [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065586

  • Problemas del arte en Latinoamérica
    Traba, Marta
    In her essay, Marta Traba launches an argument in five parts against nationalism in recent Latin American painting. In the first part, she identifies nationalism as the main problem with regard to contemporary painting. Although it poses as a path to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1061697

  • Problems of Research and Documentation in Contemporary Latin American Art
    Barr, Alfred Hamilton, 1902-1981
    In this text, Alfred H. Barr, Jr. considers how scholars could expand the interest in Latin American art in the United States, prompted by the politics of World War II. Barr begins by acknowledging that the “necessity of establishing closer [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 833746