ICAA Researcher: Leticia Torres×
  • Las escuelas libres de pintura
    Casanovas, Martí, 1894-1966
    This article sets up a comparative analysis between the pedagogical principles applied at the academy and at the Open-Air Schools. For this author, what constitutes the aesthetic justification of academic painting is the manner in which things are [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 770413

  • Diego M. Rivera pintor de América
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    David Alfaro Siqueiros begins his article by saying that for all the moving cosmopolitanism of this modern painter’s creations, Diego Rivera’s œuvre is essentially Mexican. Siqueiros claims that it is a huge mistake to classify true Mexican [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 760474

  • [Sobre fotografía]
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida asserts that photography is an art which has no developmental links to the advance of technology (as is the case with science) since daguerreotypes can be just as beautiful as contemporary photographs. For this author it is necessary [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 757912

  • Abstracción y símbolo en la pintura
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    During the 1940s, Carlos Mérida’s reflections tend toward abstract art and its protagonists. In this article, the painter states that for those who are not familiar with abstract painting, a symbolic form of interpretation is the most logical. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 757819

  • Panorama de la pintura moderna mexicana
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida divides his essay into two parts. In the first one, he outlines the historical development of artistic activity in Mexico, beginning with the general strike of 1910 and ending at the dawn of the muralist period. In the second, Mérida [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747625

  • Diego Rivera no toma en serio la protesta : decorará, por lo tanto, la Bolsa de Valores de Los Angeles, California
    This article describes Diego Rivera’s reaction to the protests voiced by California artists who were adamantly opposed to inviting him to paint murals at the Los Angeles Stock Exchange. Rivera briefly outlines three of his reasons for not taking [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747566

  • Con tinta negra y roja : El Muralismo Mexicano, un enorme absceso que contagió a todos nuestros países : carta abierta de Marta Traba sobre el problema del Muralismo Mexicano
    Rodríguez, Antonio, 1909-
    Antonio Rodríguez published an open letter sent to him by Marta Traba—the Argentine critic—in response to his article “El muralismo de México: uno de los momentos culminantes del arte de este siglo” [Muralism in Mexico: One of the Climactic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747211

  • Crítica de Arte
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida reviews the 1926 Exhibition of the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes. He comments that what stands out for its pictorial values, is the group of works presented by the Escuelas de Pintura al Aires Libre [Open-Air Painting Schools], but [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747165

  • Diego Rivera y Rockefeller : asesinato de una obra artística : el famoso fresco borrado es conocido ya en todo el mundo
    Leblanc, Oscar
    Oscar Leblanc interviews Diego Rivera about the destruction of the mural that Rivera painted at the Rockefeller Center in New York. Leblanc asks Rivera about his reaction to the news, and questions him about the terms of the contract, since it had [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747108

  • Notas artísticas : las decoraciones florales de las Canos de Xochimilco
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    What is most relevant in Carlos Mérida’s article is his statement about the little appreciation granted to popular art, which he considers the only possible aesthetic manifestation of the country. For Mérida, the European artistic invasion still [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747095

  • Art interpretations
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida considers that Mexican painting belongs to the Americas because the spirit of its ancestors floats anew all over the Indo-Hispanic land. The author believes that the development of Mexican painting is directed by traditional rules [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 747066

  • Entrevista con el pintor Diego Rivera
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    In this brief interview, Diego Rivera is asked what prompted his return to Mexico. He states that he is interested in studying the traditional art of Mexico as well as the ruins of the country’s amazing past in order to crystallize certain artistic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 746976

  • La escultura en México
    Alva de la Canal, Ramón
    Here Ramón Alva de la Canal writes on various matters related to the aesthetic backwardness of sculpture. He reports that, while painting has been developing, the other arts have stagnated through mere repetition. He points out that one of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 746963

  • Las fotos de Tina Modotti : el anecdotismo revolucionario
    Casanovas, Martí, 1894-1966
    Martí Casanovas discusses the two qualities to be found in Tina Modotti’s photographs, referring on the one hand to the formalist, aesthetic value of her work and, on the other, highlighting its social importance as a propaganda tool used on [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 746949

  • Veinte años de pintura en México
    Ramos, Samuel
    Samuel Ramos writes some of his critical reflections about the historic meaning of the Mexican movement of painting that began in 1921, in order to understand its spiritual evolution. The tone of the essay oscillates between the value of mural [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 746936

  • Sobre un artículo de Samuel Ramos : una carta de nuestro colaborador Carlos Mérida
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida sends this letter to the magazine Ars to protest the article by Samuel Ramos entitled “Twenty years of painting in Mexico,” published in the first issue of said periodical. The artist expresses his disagreement, pointing out the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 746913

  • Manuel Álvarez Bravo
    Villaurrutia, Xavier, 1903-1950
    Xavier Villaurrutia reflects upon the artistic value of photography. He recalls that the poet Charles Baudelaire refused to consider photography among the fine arts or accept photographers as artists. According to Villaurrutia, the problem still [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 744758

  • El espíritu del arte en México
    Westheim, Paul
    From a European perspective, Paul Westheim gives his first impressions on modern art in Mexico. He identifies two of its qualities: first, an originality and independence from European art and, second, a rebirth of folk art that is removed from the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 744729

  • [El caso de Germán Cueto en la escultura contemporánea...]
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    In this essay, the painter Carlos Mérida emphasizes Germán Cueto’s capacity to work with different materials such as iron, tin, and plastics, by connecting them to a new aesthetic modality called “design.” For Mérida, design is the vital [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736834

  • La fotografía de Edward Weston
    The article explains that neither of Edward Weston’s two exhibitions of photographs taken in Mexico had been well received in Los Angeles, California. The writer says that Weston was aware that, in California, Mexicans were considered an inferior [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736826

  • Prometeo : el fresco de Pomona
    The author of this article mentions that the poet José Juan Tablada has written about the powerful reaction to José Clemente Orozco’s mural in the United States. According to the article, this work of art is ushering in a period of greater [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736818

  • La exposición de 8 pintores jóvenes en la Galería de Arte Moderno
    The article covers the exhibition organized by the Galería de Arte Moderno in celebration of its first anniversary. The author comments on the Mexican capital’s vocation toward art, both in terms of diffusion and stimulus. He also mentions some of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736798

  • La labor mexicanista de Adolfo Best Maugard
    This biographical sketch highlights Adolfo Best Maugard’s artistic career in the fields of dance, theater, book illustration, and teaching. Referring to Best Maugard’s visual arts production, the author of the article mentions the Knoedler [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736702

  • Pinturas murales mexicanas
    Charlot, Jean
    Artist Jean Charlot suggests that murals in “pulquerías” [agave sap saloons] and butcher shops are genuine works of art because of their superior aesthetic level. He remarks that, aesthetically speaking, Mexico is like Pompeii, Italy, in terms [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736696

  • Motivo decorativo mexicano de Fernando Best Pontones
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    In the review that Carlos Mérida writes about the exhibit by Fernando Best Pontones at the Galería de Arte, he underlines the importance of exhibiting decorative drawings, since such art contributes to the development of an interesting Mexican [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736677

  • El dibujo escolar en México y la exposición de Bruselas
    This article reviews an exhibition of children’s drawings held in Brussels, to which Mexico sent a group of works by children from official schools. The author emphasizes the great reception that the Mexican works received and he transcribes part [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736670

  • Personalidad de Carlos Orozco Romero
    For the author, the purpose of artistic movements, the so-called “revolutionary” movements, was to suppress academies in order to achieve aesthetic freedom and open up the horizon toward plurality. It is the author’s opinion that in Mexico, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736663

  • Rosendo Salazar artista y poeta
    This article describes the lyrical spirit—pervaded by a proletarian ideology—that characterizes the work of the poet, painter and Mexican worker Rosendo Salazar. The author considers his work part of the school that sees art as a powerful medium [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736641

  • Alberto Garduño y su obra moderna
    Alberto Garduño is the subject of this article. The author considers Garduño to be a keen observer, as his paintings of everyday life, once translated onto canvas, produce the intended effect. He points out that the artist has been recognized not [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736634

  • La pintura moderna en México
    The article suggests that only a few isolated painters existed in Mexico before 1930. Nevertheless, the text points out that by the time of the article’s publication Mexican painting already existed as a movement, shaped by indigenous art, although [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736616

  • Mexicanos en el extranjero : J. Juan Crespo de la Serna
    This article is an autobiographical sketch by Jorge Juan Crespo de la Serna in which he relates his adventures in the world as a sailor, diplomat and bohemian in the art academies of Vienna, Paris and Berlin, as well as an interpreter, journalist, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736606

  • El Museo Cívico de la Ciudad de México
    Sáyago, Fernando
    [In this document] the engineer Fernando Sayago writes about the Museo Cívico de la Ciudad de México. It was established on the first floor of the Teatro Nacional with the purpose of honoring all facets of the capital, Mexico City: historical, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736594

  • Carlos Mérida y la crítica Americana
    This brief review deals with Carlos Mérida’s exhibition at the Delphic Studios in New York. It was widely accepted and attended by a large public that included artists, critics, and journalists. Some sections of comments about the show, published [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736587

  • En la Galería de Arte Moderno
    Atl, Dr., 1875-1964
    This brief survey of Dr. Atl’s exhibit at the Galería de Arte Moderno, remarks on the vocation shown by this branch of the DDF [Mexico City-City Hall] to encourage openly and generously any sincere artistic manifestation. Regarding the work of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736579

  • Las últimas exposiciones de arte mexicano
    What is relevant in this article is that it presents a synopsis of five exhibitions that were held in the Galería de Arte Moderno—which depends on the Dirección de Acción Cívica del Departamento del Distrito Federal [an entity of civic action [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 736560

  • Dos pintores nacionalistas : Ricardo X. Arias y Erasto Cortéz
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    In this article, Carlos Mérida points out that the popular arts, as regards education, represent a point of departure. However, if one intends to produce high painting and/or national expression, the popular element must be an animator, a basis for [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 735978

  • Dos jóvenes pintores mexicanos
    The author points out that Mexican painting still has many paths to explore and that it is preparing a new generation that will come to define the future of art in Mexico. He reports that the magazine Nuestra Ciudad has published some photographs of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 735430

  • Diego Rivera y sus nuevos frescos
    The author of this article contemplates Diego Rivera and refers to an essay written by Alejo Carpentier, “El Renacimiento del fresco en México” [The Renaissance of the Fresco in Mexico] published in Le Cahier in Paris. According to this writer, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 734304

  • Prometeo : el fresco de Pomona
    Aragón Leiva, Agustín
    The article explains that José Clemente Orozco was becoming known in the United States as a result of exhibitions of his work in New York galleries and as a designer of book illustrations. The writer also notes that the Spanish intellectual José [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 734199

  • [La pintura, en su estado actual,...]
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida sets forth eleven tenets on the development of painting in relation to the integration of the arts; these function both as a manifesto and as an introduction to the catalog. For the artist, functional painting is equivalent to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733691

  • En torno a la "Integración"-
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    By 1954, Carlos Mérida had published 11 tenets related to what he called functional painting and its importance in the integration of the visual arts, as well as some theoretical concepts regarding architectonic-pictorial space. For Mérida, at that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733682

  • La escuela pictórica del día : el simultaneísmo de Delaunay
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida describes Impressionism as an artistic movement that promoted freedom of thought and opinion. This led to a great proliferation of schools and pictorial forms of expression that, in spite of having dealt the fatal blow to the stifling [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733669

  • La exposición anual de la Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    In this article Carlos Mérida reviews the annual exhibition at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes. He emphasizes the show’s disorder, the lack of information to guide the public, and the unevenness of both quantity and quality among the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733656

  • Orozco hace opera : el público ya no quiere "ver" pintura sino "oírla" dice en Nueva York el artista tapatío
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Carlos Mérida quotes José Clemente Orozco at length in this article. Orozco had been invited to paint a fresco to accompany the show 20 Siglos de Arte Mexicano [20 Centuries of Mexican Art], presented at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1940 [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733648

  • Un juicio sobre la pintura de Tamayo
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    Taking Rufino Tamayo’s exhibition at the Palacio de Bellas Artes [Palace of Fine Arts] in 1948 as a starting point, Carlos Mérida writes an essay in which he analyzes Tamayo’s work with reference to its composition, themes, styles and influences [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733466

  • La verdadera significación de la obra de Saturnino Herrán : los falsos criterios
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    This essay is a severe critique of the literary figures that at that time served as art critics in Mexico. According to the author they critiqued art although they possessed no knowledge of the field. For Carlos Mérida, Saturnino Herrán’s art [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 733457