ICAA Researcher: Josefina Manrique×
  • "Es dificil negar que Gego nació en Venezuela..." = "É difícil negar que Gego nasceu na Venezuela..."
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    In this essay, Roberto Guevara gives an overview of Gego’s career, [based on a selection of works that are] on display at the São Paulo Biennial. Guevara describes how Gego’s work has evolved from her early sculptures in the 1950s to her latest [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149603

  • "Mis obras son un trabajo abstracto muy planificado..."
    Espinoza, Eugenio, 1950-
    In this essay, Eugenio Espinoza analyzes Dibujos sin papel [Drawings Without Paper], a series of works by Gego, a Venezuelan artist of German origin. Espinoza focuses on the works from that series created in 1985 as he explores the way Gego goes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854691

  • "Reticulárea" de Gego
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    Roberto Guevara reviewed Gego’s Reticulárea (1969) when it was first installed at the Museo de Bellas Artes [Museum of Fine Arts] in Caracas. He mentions the artist’s use of space within the Reticulárea, which acquires a new environmental [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149318

  • [-1- no sé "de donde viene"...]
    In response to the questions put to her by Venezuelan filmmaker José Antonio Pantin, Gego remarks on the origin of her art and the processes it involves, focusing specifically on her three-dimensional work. She states that her works have been [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854787

  • [A pesar que no es un lugar común...]
    Brandt, Alberto, 1924-1970
    This text by artist Alberto Brandt describes the artistic aims of his exhibition Alberto Brandt. Exposición de pinturas held at the Centro Profesional del Este in Caracas in 1957. As opposed to the “pseudo-classicism,” rationality, and formalism [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1160234

  • [Establecer una frontera entre lo cursi y lo pavoso...]
    Techo de la Ballena (1961-1969)
    In this text, the members of El Techo de la Ballena, a group that emerged in the sixties, in Caracas, delineated the differences between categories such as “tacky,” “unfortunate,” and “ridiculous” in the exhibition, Homenaje a la cursiler [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1059586

  • [Gego es uno de los auténticos valores...]
    Chocrón, Isaac, 1930- 2011
    This text was written by Venezuelan playwright and essayist Isaac Chocrón (1930–2011) for the catalogue accompanying the Gego exhibition, Gego esculturas. 1957–1967, held at the Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango in Bogotá (1967). Chocrón places [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159035

  • [Gertrudis Goldschmidt, Gego, figura del arte contemporáneo ... = Gertrudis Goldschmidt, Gego, figura do arte contemporaneo...]
    Avellaneda de Luna, Mariela
    With this text, Mariela Avellaneda de Luna officially presents Gego at the twenty-third São Paulo Biennial. Avellaneda points out the importance of the line in Gego’s large structures, such as the versions of Reticulárea, emphasizing the way the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149565

  • [Hasta ahora lo que entre nosotros se había llamado …]
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    The critic Juan Calzadilla wrote this prologue for Borges. Las Jugadoras, the exhibition at the Galería del Techo [de la Ballena]. Calzadilla describes Jacobo Borges’ work as being representative of a new kind of painting that—while not entirely [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060684

  • [Hay ciertos rostros de la ciudad...]
    Pérez Perdomo, Francisco
    Francisco Pérez Perdomo wrote the prologue for Asfalto-Infierno, the book by Adriano González Léon (text) and Daniel González (photographs), published by El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68), the group to which these artists belonged. Pé [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060288

  • [La gran virtud de Gego...]
    Lucena, Luis Fernando
    Luis Fernando Lucena reviews Gego’s lithographic works. The Colombian writer describes these works by Gego as atemporal and in a permanent state of activity, with no beginning or end. He also suggests that it is impossible and unnecessary to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159514

  • [La obra de Gego...]
    Figarella, Mariana, 1959- 1996
    Critic Mariana Figarella analyzes the series of Dibujos sin papel [Drawings Without Paper] that Gego, a Venezuelan artist of German origin, produced between 1976 and 1984. Figarella discusses the “ambiguity” of these works and the subsequent [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854672

  • [Muchos serán los que interpretarán nuestra actitud como manifestación de odios personales...]
    In this third issue of Los Disidentes [The Dissidents] (Paris, 1950), the authors reject the potential arguments against their movement; which only seek to distort the true intentions of the authors. They reaffirm the seriousness of their commitment [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813493

  • [Nosotros no vinimos a París a seguir cursos de diplomacia...]
    In this fifth and last issue of Los Disidentes [The Dissidents] (Paris, 1950) magazine, which states as its purpose to “severely” attack the cultural reality of Venezuela, which [the group] describes as “false,” and with the intention of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813555

  • [Reflexiones sobre mi origen y encuentros...]
    In this letter addressed to professor Frithjof Trapp at the Universität von Hamburg, Gego, the German-born Venezuelan artist, looks back on her life and talks about her origins in the city of Hamburg, Germany: her family, her schooling, her [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864354

  • [Relaciones de lineas creadas...]
    In this manuscript, the German-born Venezuelan artist Gego shares her thoughts about the line, denying that it originates in the sensory field or the knowledge field [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855429

  • [Reticularea es el nombre que le han dado...]
    Blanco, Lourdes
    The Venezuelan curator and critic Lourdes Blanco analyzes Reticulárea, 1969, the installation created by the German-born Venezuelan artist, Gego. Blanco sees this work as the product of a process of “calculation and spontaneity” that is utterly [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1198045

  • [Skulptur...]
    In this brief article, the German-born Venezuelan artist, Gego, rejects the term “sculpture” as a description of her work [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854859

  • [The line as a human mean to express...]
    The German-born Venezuelan artist Gego briefly explains some of her thoughts on the meaning and use of the line. In her view the human idea of “a line” is abstract, since it does not exist in nature. But as a medium it can express descriptive [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855370

  • [Un día el poeta sentó la belleza en sus rodillas … ]
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    This essay by the critic and curator Roberto Guevara appeared in the catalogue for the exhibition 10 pintores venezolanos de la nueva figuración. In his opinion, figuration has gone down the same cyclical and unstable path as all the other [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060477

  • [Una exposición de obras de Jacobo Borges…]
    Erminy, Perán
    The critic and historian Perán Erminy evaluates the work presented by the painter Jacobo Borges at the exhibition Jacobo Borges. Dibujos recientes,hosted by the ¡Viva México! gallery in Caracas. Erminy claims that the Venezuelan artist’s goal is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060424

  • [Una sorprendente revelación en la plástica nacional...]
    Erminy, Perán
    Through his criticism, Perán Erminy defines the work of the Venezuelan visual artist shown in Alberto Brandt: Exposición de pinturas (Centro Profesional del Este, Caracas, 1957). In this text, Erminy postulates that this work is a definitive [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1160218

  • [Yo pertenezco a un pueblo real, maravilloso…]
    Loyola, Juan, 1952-1999
    This text, written on a “fan,” carries a message of protest from the visual artist Juan Loyola to the then president of Venezuela, Jaime Lusinchi (1984–89). Loyola expresses the revulsion he feels after the ex-minister Vinicio Carrera managed [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1160337

  • [You invited me for this meeting...]
    In this speech to her companions at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop, Gego describes the basic tenets of her work and outlines the projects she plans to present. She explains how her use of line has evolved over the course of time, from her early [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 854807

  • 4 Latin American cosmopolitan stylists
    Kramer, Hilton
    Hilton Kramer reviews the exhibition Latin America: New Paintings and Sculpture. Juan Downey, Agustín Fernández, Gego, and Gabriel Morera, presented at the Art Gallery of the Center for Inter-American Relations in 1969. Kramer mentions the fact [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159450

  • Aberraciones eróticas difunde panfleto pornográfico hecho en la universidad : se exige al rector que explique quien autorizó la impresión
    This critique is about the publication of a pamphlet printed at the UCV (Universidad Central de Venezuela), whose content dealt with “aberrant deviations of eroticism.” The anonymous article states that the pamphlet caused outrage toward the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060229

  • Acotaciones al tema de la crueldad en el arte : en memoria de Pedro Américo- Brasil 1843 - 1905-pintor de tiradentes descuartizado
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    Miguel von Dangel begins this article with a story about the death of a horse that was used in [medical] experiments. His wish that the horse be given a compassionate death was stymied, and instead, the horse ended up dying slowly, in painful agony, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102157

  • Alrededor de la historia de "Los Disidentes" : respuesta a "Historia de una mítica disidencia" publicada por la Barraca de Mari-Pérez, en Últimas Noticias, el 9 de julio de 1950.
    Erminy, Perán; Guevara Moreno, Luis, 1926-; Debourg, Narciso, 1925-
    In this article, the group of Venezuelan artists called Los Disidentes (Paris, 1950) responded to the attacks launched at them in the Caracas press by the artists association La Barraca de Mari-Pérez (Caracas, 1947). Describing how their group got [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813463

  • Américas desavenidas
    Picón-Salas, Mariano, 1901-1965
    Critic Mariano Picón-Salas interprets the model proposed by José Enrique Rodó in Ariel (1900) as a symbol of the antagonism between Latin America and the United States. This opposition, caused by the imperialist thirst of the United States and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815716

  • Another geometry : Gego´s reticulárea, 1969-1982
    Amor, Monica
    In this essay, Mónica Amor analyzes the contribution that the work by Gego, Reticulárea, has made to contemporary art. She claims that Reticulárea is a radical attack on the way architecture defines space, as well as the conventions of sculpture, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149547

  • Antonieta Sosa : la medida de lo personal
    Hernández, Carmen, 1963-
    In this text, Chilean-born curator Carmen Hernández examines the work of Venezuelan artist Antonieta Sosa included in the group show, Desde el cuerpo: alegorías de lo femenino. In Hernández’s view, Sosa’s work upholds the idea of the feminine [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1155378

  • Arte de "los once": 5 de los mejores abstractos cubanos exponen en "Sardio"
    This press article announces the exhibition of work by five abstract artists from Cuba (Hugo Consuegra, Tomás Oliva, Raúl Martínez, Antonio Vidal, and Guido Llinás), former members of the Los Once group (Cuba 1953). The exhibition was organized [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855498

  • Arte Si... pero sin dogmas
    Navarro Velásquez, Pascual, 1923-1985
    Painter Pascual Navarro refutes the views of anthropologist and artist Gilberto Antolínez regarding the proposed reforms in the Academia de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas in Venezuela in 1945. He objects to Antolínez’s prejudice against foreign [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 809992

  • Así fue
    Márquez, Felipe, 1954-
    The Venezuelan graphic designer and draftsman Felipe Márquez created a biographical sketch of Alberto Brandt (1924–70). Márquez narrates some of the key stories that nurtured the myths swirling around this Venezuelan visual artist. He also [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1160250

  • Assembling Collective Reason : Gego’s structure as public space
    Ledezma, Juan
    Juan Ledezma compares the aesthetic strategies that Gego used to create shape in space.  Leaning on theories suggested by Jürgen Habermas, who classifies modern forms of reason, Ledezma analyzes the “formative logic” of Gego’s constructions [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159466

  • Carlos González Bogen : pintor
    Manaure, Mateo
    The Venezuelan artist Mateo Manaure outlines an assessment on the artistic career of his compatriot, artist Carlos González Bogen, commenting on his activities from when he was academically training at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas de Caracas when [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813583

  • Carta a Guillent Pérez, a propósito de limbos y apocalipsis
    Otero, Alejandro, 1921-1990
    Open letter to Philosophy Graduate J. R. Guillent Pérez. In this letter the artist Alejandro Otero highlights his differences on the ideas of Marta Traba, which had already been questioned by the addressee. Otero, openly in opposition to Traba, felt [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 798998

  • Carta de presentación
    Abreu, Mario, 1919-1993
    Mario Abreu wrote this introduction for his exhibition Objetos Mágicos, held at the Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas in 1965. The Venezuelan visual artist maintains that it is through artistic arrangement and contradictions that he continues “to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101698

  • Catalyst for the Latin Americans
    O'Connor, John J.
    John O’Connor reviews the exhibition Latin America: New Paintings and Sculpture. Juan Downey, Agustín Fernández, Gego, and Gabriel Morera (New York: Art Gallery of the Center for Inter-American Relations, 1969). O’Connor acknowledges the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159626

  • Censura e Identidad
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    Here, Miguel von Dangel reviews the ideas of Latin American identity and its utopias, stating that its identity was subconsciously affected by cultural conflicts from elsewhere. The writer also points out deficiencies in Latin American criticism, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154570

  • Colonización cultural : la cultura del petróleo. Rasgos y efectos en nuestra población. La situación del colonizado. La descolonización cultural.
    Quintero, Rodolfo, 1909-1985
    Venezuelan anthropologist Rodolfo Quintero describes the “oil culture” in this thesis as the most devastating consequence of cultural colonization suffered by his country. Through it, the colonizers altered and distorted the social development of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815702

  • Conversación con Gego
    Cárdenas, María Luz
    Venezuelan critic and curator María Luz Cárdenas interviews Gego on the occasion of the presentation of the book of poems Variaciones sobre reticuláreas [Variations on Reticuláreas] written by Venezuelan poet Alfredo Silva Estrada; the book, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864774

  • Conversación con Gego
    Palacios, María Fernanda, 1945-
    María Fernanda Palacios and Gego spoke about the problems at the Instituto de Diseño [Design Institute] in Caracas. They discussed the teaching-learning process in the field of design as well as the concept and functions of this discipline, which [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864831

  • Cristos de Miguel Von Dangel
    Da Antonio, Francisco, 1930-
    The critic and historian Francisco Da Antonio writes the prologue in the catalogue for Cristos (Caracas: Galería El ave que llovía, 1972), the exhibition of works by the visual artist Miguel von Dangel. The critic interprets the work Retrato [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154108

  • Cuadros en una exposición
    Pérez Oramas, Luis, 1960-
    The Venezuelan critic Luis Pérez-Oramas discusses the exhibition of Latin American artists on display at the Centre George Pompidou in Paris from November 1992 until January 1993. He questions the curators’ chronological perspective of Latin [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 815786

  • De engaños y otras lidias
    Palenzuela, Juan Carlos, 1954-
    This essay, written by the critic and historian Juan Carlos Palenzuela, appeared as the prologue in the catalogue for De engaños y otras lidias, the exhibition of works by the visual artist Miguel von Dangel held at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154044

  • De la caza de brujas a Rauschenberg go home
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    In this text, Miguel von Dangel criticizes the stance taken by the Venezuelan painter Oswaldo Vigas regarding the exhibition by Robert  Rauschenberg at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas, which Vigas finds contradictory and “chauvinist [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154538

  • De la tela de araña
    Bois, Yve-Alain
    French critic and art historian Yve-Alain Bois bases his analysis of Gego’s work, particularly Reticulárea (1969), on poetic texts from ancient Greece, as well as the philosophy of Lucretiusand of Karl Marx. In his analysis, Bois, who taught in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148230

  • Declara Pedro Centeno Vallenilla : "defensores del folleto con aberraciones sexuales obedecen al complejo del salvaje que goza comiendo inmundicias...".
    This article gives an account of the repudiation that came from the cultural and political sectors in Venezuela against the endorsement of a manifesto defending the exhibition Homenaje a la necrofilia by Carlos Contramaestre that was organized by El [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 865836

  • Del arte abstracto
    Otero, Alejandro, 1921-1990
    In this essay, the painter and member of the Los Disidentes group (Paris, 1950) Alejandro Otero presents a long list of the major elements and people that contributed to the creation of Abstract art. The list includes: revolutions in art; the present [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 813611