ICAA Researcher: Alejandro García×
  • ¡Cuarenta y un maricones!
    1901
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, known as the Ball of the Forty-One, the poem describes the possible foundation of a mutual aid society in which a dance was mentioned: “El traje debía de ser [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778106

  • 42, 43 y 44
    1901
    [This document entails] humorous dialogue between two apparent homosexuals. The anonymous writer refers to a word game with the numbers (forty-two, forty-three and forty-four) that would represent the masculinity of the two workers who are attacking [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778156

  • Actualidades : el fusil y no las faldas
    Muñoz Serrano, Benito
    1901
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, subsequently known as the Ball of the Forty One, this satirical poem calls the Forty-One (among other things) “viciosos inmundos [dissolute, filthy] / nutridos [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778131

  • Autobiografía de José Clemente Orozco.
    Orozco, José Clemente
    1942
    This is an autobiographical account by the Mexican muralist José Clemente Orozco that reveals the extraordinary influence exerted on his life and work by Dr. Atl. When Dr. Atl returned from Europe, he sought the support of his old colleagues at the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 796158

  • Chismitos del día : los 41 de Marras. Nacieron de nuevo
    Montes de Oca, Francisco
    1901
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City— known as the Ball of the Forty-One—in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, El Popular kept up its mocking tone in sarcastic short pieces: “––Listen, bitch, I thought of an idea to keep them [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778101

  • Dinero para las escuelas : piden los maestros que se destine a fundar otras. lo que se ganó al convertir en pesos los 5 millones de dólares de la deuda
    1932
    A committee was formed to call for the construction of schools due to the lack of educational institutions and the dearth of jobs and opportunities for the teachers who had recently graduated, as well as the older, unemployed educators. The plan was [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 796155

  • El baile “Travestí” del Gobernador del distrito
    1894
    This story details one of the basic reasons for the scandal of the Forty-One: the excesses of the upper class, who lived for dances and social display. With Pedro Rincón Gallardo, governor of the Federal District, presiding, the dictator and the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778080

  • El baile de los cuarenta y uno : los enviados a Yucatán
    1901
    El Popular published an article in which two village women, who were scandalized, commented on the recent events and the punishment applied to the dancers, who were consigned to the state of Yucatán. Thus a half-serious, half-jesting text was added [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778096

  • El baile escandaloso
    1901
    Written after a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, known as the Ball of the Forty-One, the purpose of this article was to contradict what was already generally known: “There are those who state that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778136

  • El baile nefando
    1901
    This article is the first one to mention the aspect that will make this news item popular and notorious: “The fact is that a number of people in a segment of society deemed honorable were by chance discovered in a sphere that represents extreme [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778126

  • El viaje de los cuarenta y uno. Diario colectivo
    1901
    El Popular continued its series of articles riddled with mockery and denigrating comments, such as the supposed “Trip Diary” that described the tribulations of the consigned Forty-One before they reached the Yucatán. Sarcasm based on their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778111

  • Escuelas primarias 1932
    2005
    If the concept of socialist schools were to be fully implemented, appropriate facilities would be required. Special buildings were needed where security, spaciousness, ventilation, orientation, cleanliness and decoration would all create a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 789180

  • Hermafrodita
    1894
    Avoiding sensationalism and bad faith, this article addresses the case of a woman with masculine tendencies who takes the matter to confession with a priest (a modern and broad-minded priest). The priest is neither scandalized by the woman’s “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778075

  • Información del día : baile de señores solos
    1901
    In the news: “The event discovered by the police on Saturday night in a house on one of the De la Paz streets is repugnant. At a dance being held there, the volume of the noise was higher than necessary for entertainment. The police went to the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778086

  • Juan O´Gorman plantea el dilema arte utilidad
    Larrosa, Manuel
    1976
    Juan O’Gorman addresses the problem of architecture from the perspective of functionality versus aesthetics and concludes that the two opposites should be fused into one: “architecture should serve as a useful object and as an object of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 787955

  • Las cartas de los cuarenta y uno
    1901
    El Popular released three fictional “Cartas de Los cuarenta y uno” [Letters from the Forty-One] signed by Concho, Lolito and Carolino, with a number of clearly ridiculous complaints, even riddled with intentional spelling mistakes: “Alfredo de [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778116

  • Lo visible y lo oculto. El mural de Alva Guadarrama en la escuela primaria Juan Palacios
    Soto Villafaña, Adrián
    1998
    This is the first systematic study of this painter’s murals in the so-called “Escuelas funcionalistas” [functional schools]. One school was built in 1932 in the Colonia Pro-Hogar (Azcapotzalco Area) in Mexico City; two years later, Alva [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 789185

  • Los cuarenta y un bailarines
    1901
    La Patria was the historic source of the name for this event: The Forty-One, when it commented that “Forty-one men and an old woman were at a dance where the men were having a good time, nineteen of them in women’s dresses.” It goes on to tell [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778121

  • Los hijos ingratos
    1901
    This was the only news run by El Tiempo about the Ball of the Forty-One. Starting with the title “Los hijos ingratos” [Ungrateful Sons], it constructs an apologia of the good manners of high society; of all the sacrifices these prominent [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778151

  • Patrimonio artístico olvidado en las escuelas de educación básica de la SEP en la Ciudad de México
    Manríquez Salazar, Leticia
    1998
    The journalist mentions the bureaucratic maneuvering that allowed the SEP [Ministry of Public Education] to relinquish its position as keeper of the murals painted on the school walls and in 1963, pass the role on to the Centro Nacional de Conservaci [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 787975

  • Salidas de tono : la aristocracia de Sodoma al servicio nacional
    1901
    El Hijo del Ahuizote, which was opposed to the Porfirio Díaz administration and was in fact one of its fiercest enemies, continued to publish texts with the same satirical tone: “to the innocent Army, forcing it to welcome and include among its [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778146

  • Semana alegre
    Campo, Angel de
    1901
    With subtle irony (but without sarcasm or mockery), the writer talks about the excessive pampering and preferences of “niños ricos” [rich children] in a society “acostumbrada [a que] un chico duerma con veladora, tapadas las rendijas; que se [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778141

  • Un baile clandestino sorprendido : 42 hombres aprehendidos, unos vestidos de mujeres
    1901
    There were forty-two people at the dance. Later it was discovered that one of them was actually a woman, but it was never clarified if she was just the housekeeper or a go-between, leading the guests to clandestine sites. They recognized “some of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778091