The Centro de Estudios de Arte y Comunicación (CEAC) was founded in 1968; just a short time after its first public presentation at the Galería Bonino (August–September 1969), it changed its name to the Centro de Arte y Comunicación (CAyC). The CAyC supported different artists through the years with Jorge Glusberg (1934–2012) serving as its director and theoretician. In 1971 the Grupo de los Trece [Group of Thirteen] was founded; its members included Jacques Bedel, Luis [Fernando] Benedit, Gregorio Dujovny, Carlos Ginzburg, Víctor Grippo, Jorge González Mir, Vicente Marotta, Luis Pazos, Alfredo Portillos, Juan Carlos Romero, Julio Teich, Horacio Zabala, Alberto Pellegrino, and Glusberg. Later some artists distanced themselves from the group and formed new associations, and in 1975 the Grupo CAyC was founded by Bedel, Benedit, Grippo, Portillos, and Glusberg himself. As part of the interdisciplinary activities undertaken by the CAyC from its beginnings in 1969 (“Qué es el CEAC”) [“What is the CEAC?”], in the Primera muestra del Centro de Estudios de Arte y Comunicación de la Fundación de Investigación Interdisciplinaria presentada en la Galería Bonino de Buenos Aires [First Exhibition of the Centro de Estudios de Arte y Comunicación at the Fundación de Investigación Interdisciplinaria presented by the Galería Bonino of Buenos Aires], August–September 1969), the CAyC began to organize courses and seminars offered by prominent intellectuals. Beginning in 1973 with the founding of the Escuela de Altos Estudios del CAyC [CAyC Higher Studies School], these types of offerings became part of its activities.CAyC al Aire Libre o Arte e Ideología, CAyC al Aire Libre (Buenos Aires, Plaza Roberto Arlt, September 1972) was one of the three parts of the exhibition, Arte de Sistemas II [Systems Art II] (Buenos Aires, September 1972). The other remaining parts were Arte de Sistemas Internacional [International Systems Art] (Buenos Aires, Museo de Arte Moderno), and Arte de Sistemas Argentina [Argentine Systems of Art] (Buenos Aires, Centro de Arte y Comunicación), both held the same month and year.