Historian Adauto Novaes was the coordinator of this overview of studies of “the popular” and “the national” in Brazilian culture assembled between 1980 and 1982. The range of essays by intellectuals in different fields (philosophy, music, visual art, film, theater, literature, television, and radio) was gathered for publication in a six-volume work entitled O nacional e o popular na cultura brasilera. In this seminar, intellectual Marilena [de Souza] Chauí (b. 1941), who is well versed in philosophy, discusses the multiple difficulties with defining “the popular” and “the national,” difficulties related to the local versus the cosmopolitan, the national versus the international, form versus content, the critical versus the jingoistic, and the impossible reconciliation of the popular, the scientific, and the romantic. In the face of so many ambiguities, the research attempts to avoid generalizations, especially at the end of the dictatorship in power from 1964 to 1985—a moment when the military government conveyed its vision of these topics in terms of development, integration, and national security. The author asserts that this proves that “the popular” would not form part of history if it were not useful to a geopolitical strategy.